Health insurance and accessibility – The numbers of uninsured Americans and the uninsured rate from 1987 to 2008 World map of universal healthcare. Countries with universal health care Countries with universal health care Countries without universal healthcare Countries without universal healthcare Unlike most developed nations, the US health system does not provide healthcare to the country’s entire population.
- Instead, most citizens are covered by a combination of private insurance and various federal and state programs.
- As of 2017, health insurance was most commonly acquired through a group plan tied to an employer, covering 150 million people.
- Other major sources include Medicaid, covering 70 million, Medicare, 50 million, and health insurance marketplaces created by the ACA covering around 17 million.
In 2017, a study found that 73% of plans on ACA marketplaces had narrow networks, limiting access and choice in providers. Measures of accessibility and affordability tracked by national health surveys include: percent of population with insurance, having a usual source of medical care, visiting the dentist yearly, rates of preventable hospitalizations, reported difficulty seeing a specialist, delaying care due to cost, and rates of health insurance coverage.
In 2004, an OECD report noted that “all OECD countries had achieved universal or near-universal (at least 98.4% insured) coverage of their populations by 1990”. The 2004 IOM report also observed that “lack of health insurance causes roughly 18,000 unnecessary deaths every year in the US”. The Gallup organization tracks the percent of adult Americans who are uninsured for healthcare, beginning in 2008.
The rate of uninsured peaked at 18.0% in 2013 prior to the ACA mandate, fell to 10.9% in the third quarter of 2016, and stood at 13.7% in the fourth quarter of 2018. “The 2.8-percentage-point increase since that low represents a net increase of about seven million adults without health insurance.” The US Census Bureau reported that 28.5 million people (8.8%) did not have health insurance in 2017, down from 49.9 million (16.3%) in 2010.
- Between 2004 and 2013, a trend of high rates of underinsurance and wage stagnation contributed to a healthcare consumption decline for low-income Americans.
- This trend was reversed after the implementation of the major provisions of the ACA in 2014.
- As of 2017, the possibility that the ACA may be repealed or replaced has intensified interest in the questions of whether and how health insurance coverage affects health and mortality.
Several studies have indicated that there is an association with expansion of the ACA and factors associated with better health outcomes such as having a regular source of care and the ability to afford care. A 2016 study concluded that an approximately 60% increased ability to afford care can be attributed to Medicaid expansion provisions enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Additionally, an analysis of changes in mortality post Medicaid expansion suggests that Medicaid saves lives at a relatively more cost effective rate of a societal cost of $327,000 to $867,000 (equivalent to $369,213 to $978,921 in 2021 ) per life saved compared to other public policies which cost an average of $7.6 million (equivalent to $8.58 million in 2021 ) per life.
A 2009 study in five states found that medical debt contributed to 46.2% of all personal bankruptcies, and 62.1% of bankruptcy filers claimed high medical expenses in 2007. Since then, health costs and the numbers of uninsured and underinsured have increased.
A 2013 study found that about 25% of all senior citizens declare bankruptcy due to medical expenses. In practice, the uninsured are often treated, but the cost is covered through taxes and other fees which shift the cost. Forgone medical care due to extensive cost sharing may ultimately increase costs due to downstream medical issues; this dynamic may play a part in US’s international ranking as having the highest healthcare expenditures despite significant patient cost-sharing.
Those who are insured may be underinsured such that they cannot afford adequate medical care. A 2003 study estimated that 16 million US adults were underinsured, disproportionately affecting those with lower incomes—73% of the underinsured in the study population had annual incomes below 200% of the federal poverty level.
Can patients use the managed care panel of providers?
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|The intent of managed health care was to
|replace fee-for-service plans with affordable, quality care to health care consumers.
|The Medical Center received a $100,000 capitation payment in January to cover the health care costs of 150 managed care enrollees. By the following January, $80,000 had been expended to cover services provided. The remaining $20,000 is
|retained by the Medical Center as profit.
|A nonprofit organization that contracts with and acquires the clinical and business assets of physician practices is called a
|Which is responsible for supervising and coordinating health care services for enrollees and approves referrals to specialists?
|primary care provider (PCP)
|The term that describes requirements created by accreditation organizations is
|Which administrative procedure should a medical practice follow when it contracts with a managed care organization (MCO)?
|Maintain separate bookkeeping systems for each capitated plan.
|Which is a voluntary process that a health care facility or organization undergoes to demonstrate that it has met standards beyond those required by law?
|Which define employer contributions and ask employees to be more responsible for health care decisions and cost-sharing?
|consumer-directed health plans
|Contracted network of health care providers that provide care to subscribers for a discounted fee.
|Organization of affiliated providers’ sites that offer joint health care services to subscribers.
|Provides benefits to subscribers who are required to receive services from network providers.
|Patients can use the managed care panel of providers (paying discounted health care costs) or self-refer to out-of-network providers (and pay higher health care costs).
|Managed Care Organization (MCO)
|is responsible for the health of a group of enrollees and can be a health plan, hospital, physician group, or health system
|reimburse providers for individual health care services rendered, managed care is financed according to a method called capitation, where providers accept preestablished payments for providing health care services to enrollees over a period of time
|PCP serves as a _
|providing essential health care services at the lowest possible cost, avoiding nonessential care, and referring patients to specialists.
|a method of controlling health care costs and quality of care
What is the goal of managed care quizlet?
The goal of managed care is to provide good care while practicing efficiency and controlling costs.
What is the biggest advantage of a managed care plan?
Pros and Cons of Managed Care – While managed care is the most common healthcare delivery system, it is not the only option, nor is it the best. Additional healthcare alternatives could prove to be more beneficial, depending on individual situations. Just as comparing different types of managed care plans can help you find the best solution, understanding the pros and cons of managed care, in general, can provide a more complete picture of your healthcare options.
|Network restrictions can lower healthcare costs for members. Patients pay discounted rates for care received within the provider network.
|Severely limits options for coverage: care must be performed in-network to receive coverage and discounts.
|Providers in your network can exchange documents and medical files quickly. With the patient’s consent, files are readily accessible to any network provider.
|Patients report feeling like they are treated as products. Contracts with health insurance companies incentivize providers to over utilize services like testing and screening.
|Networks send information directly to in-network pharmacies to simplify prescription management. Patients only need to pay for and pick up prescriptions.
|Some managed care plans require patients to do a fair bit of paperwork. Members schedule their own appointments and follow-ups, etc., reinforcing a system in which patients must advocate for themselves.
|Receiving in-network care can be quick, depending on the type of managed care plan and how busy it is. For example, because PPOs do not require referrals, patients can book their own appointments for services immediately.
|Busy networks often mean long waits before members can receive care. Because of network restrictions, a shortage of doctors or an overload of patient requests makes it difficult for members to schedule simple checkups or vaccinations.
What is the main key element of a managed care program?
Understanding Managed Care
- Understanding Managed Care
- IPEHN presents its version of “Managed Care 101” to soothe the pain and confusion caused by today’s healthcare environment
- BY SANDY BURK
Spurred by voter outcry, state and Federal governments have begun to mandate reform in managed care. The most visible example is a guaranteed two- or three-day hospital stay for women and newborns following delivery. Over the years, the rising costs of healthcare—resulting from a rapidly changing healthcare system—have translated into similarly increasing insurance premiums.
By the late 1980s, annual increases for health insurance premiums outpaced inflation, reaching as high as 19 percent at its worst point. Employers were finding that providing health insurance benefits was becoming too expensive. In response, health insurers introduced “managed care,” a series of options that manage the cost of healthcare and, thus, help employers keep premiums under control.
Managed care quickly became the norm as enrollment in all types of managed care plans at large employers rose from 6 percent of covered workers in 1994 to 73 percent in 1995. This explosive growth gave rise to a plethora of managed care plans, some of which unscrupulously placed quality in a back seat to cost.
As a result, “horror stories” about managed care plans, particularly health maintenance organizations (HMOs), appeared in the media. Spurred by voter outcry, state and federal governments have begun to mandate reform in managed care. The most visible example is a guaranteed two- or three- day hospital stay for women and newborns following delivery.
Unfortunately, the horror stories and mandates have caused many people to equate managed care with less care. But that’s like throwing out the baby with the bath water! Through careful planning and investigation by employers, managed care can and does provide quick access, quality of care and competitive cost.
|It’s important to remember that “managed care” is a concept. It’s not an HMO or any other kind of specific plan. The concept can best be described as a broad spectrum of cost controlling options designed to coordinate the financing and provision of healthcare to produce high-quality healthcare for the lowest possible cost. Managed care has two key components: utilization review and healthcare provider networks/ arrangements. Utilization review serves to screen against medical tests and treatments that are unnecessary. The screening is done by the insurance company’s medical staff (using nationally accepted standards of medical practice) to make sure that the treatment is medically necessary and will be delivered in the most cost-effective manner possible. To accomplish this, techniques such as preapproval of hospital admissions and surgeries, review of treatment received, and case management for patients needing high-cost care are employed. Utilization review techniques arc widely used today in varying degrees in most insurance plans.
It is the second component—health provider networks/arrangements—that is most misunderstood and July/August 1997 /21 viewed with trepidation. Managed care networks represent a variety of arrangements with healthcare provider groups which enable insurance providers to have more control over costs.
- While these arrangements are constantly evolving, they can be succinctly categorized into three basic plans: health maintenance organizations (HMO), preferred provider options (PPO) and point of service (POS).
- These plans are basically contracted arrangements which establish alliances between insurance companies and a select group of doctors and hospitals who agree to provide services at a discounted or fixed cost.
HMO, PPO, and POS plans all offer employers the ability to control their healthcare expenditures. They range in a continuum which balances cost against freedom of choice among healthcare providers. At one end are the traditional indemnity plans which are fee-for-service arrangements.
- In this arrangement, a premium is charged for each covered person.
- In return, covered individuals may use any doctor, hospital or other healthcare provider of their choice and expect to have medical expenses reimbursed.
- These plans typically have the highest premiums.
- HMOs At the other end of the continuum are HMOs, the most tightly controlled of managed care arrangement with the lowest premiums (see chart on page 23).
HMO plans are made up of a specific network of doctors and hospitals who agree to care for a group of patients for a fixed cost per member per month (capitation) and assume responsibility for providing all necessary healthcare for a fixed premium payment without regard to the actual cost of providing these services.
The HMO establishes a network (or panel) of participating doctors and other providers who meet the plan’s criteria for participation, including licensure, training, and practice patterns. The treatments that are covered are much broader than those covered under the traditional indemnity or PPO plans.
Preventive care such as wellchild care and routine physicals are cornerstones of these plans. Some HMOs require a deductible for hospital charges and almost all require a minimal co-payment for physician office visits. Although HMOs offer the greatest control of healthcare costs and thus the lowest premiums, they do so at the expense of freedom to use a provider of choice.
HMO members are required to use a plan doctor or hospital in order to have their expenses covered, Treatment provided outside of the network is not covered at all. Use of a primary care physician (PCP), also known as a “gatekeeper,” to oversee all care and treatment is common and hospitallzation or treatment by a specialist requires a referral by the PCP in order to be covered.
While many people see the gatekeeper approach as a negative, there are definite advantages inherent in this process. Specifically, there is more emphasis on the patient/physician relationship, preventive services are provided, and the determination of the appropriateness of treatment and site of care is performed before the treatment is received rather than afterwards which optimizes the likelihood of a successful outcome.
- + PPOs
- PPOs plans came next in the evolution of managed care and were developed to take advantage of the cost controlling strengths of HMOs while providing more freedom of choice. PPOs retain the characteristics of
- 22/ Illinois Parks and Recreation
the indemnity plans including freedom to choose a provider outside the network who will be reimbursed on a fee-for-service basis. However, PPOs offer a higher co insurance reimbursement for services performed innetwork This steers patients to specific doctors and hospitals who have contracted with the PPO plan to provide discounted fees and results in reduced overall claims costs and lower overall premiums.
Park district and special recreation associations are usually smaller employers and are not able to assume the financial risk that is inherent to self insurance. + POSs Point-of-service (POS) plans are a hybrid of the HMO and PPO, combining the strengths of each. In a POS arrangement, medical providers agree to charge discounted fees.
The network of hospitals and doctors is wider than PPO networks. POS plans allows patients to choose any doctor or hospital, but pays a larger benefit when network doctors are used. On the other hand, POS plans provide greater cost controls than PPOs because they function much the same as HMOs, including the gatekeeper provision.
A specialist may be used without a referral by the primary care physician but again the coverage is reduced which increases the employee’s out of pocket cost, thus providing an incentive to stay within the network. Traditional indemnity plans have been incorporating several of the managed care techniques in recent years in order to contain costs: utilization review, preadmission certification, and case management for highcost chronic or catastrophic cases.
The managed indemnity plans offer the least control of any of the managed care arrangements. Managed care arrangements are constantly evolving because of changing economic constraints, technological advances and the social environment. As they continue to evolve, specific areas of healthcare such as mental health (also known as behavioral health), prescription drugs, dental service and vision care often are “carved out” and included under single-service or limited-service managed care plans.
Many managed care plans now use centers of excellence, medical facilities that provide specialized forms of treatment for highcost chronic conditions such as organ transplants, cancer therapies, cardiac surgery. The centers are chosen based on their outcomes and expertise, location and willingness to negotiate discounted rates.
A large number of managed care plans also provide hospice benefits for palliative care for terminally ill patients.
|Another cost-saving concept being adopted by large employers (more than one thousand employees) is “selfinsuring,” which means the employer self-funds the cost of medical care. Employers find self-insurance desirable because of potential savings that can be achieved. For instance, administrative costs are reduced because employers insurers typically add risk charges onto the administrative fees to protect themselves against adverse deviation in claims. In addition, significant cash flow savings can be realized by taking advantage of the lag between incurring of services and actual payment for them. This lag can average as much as three month and the employer is able to use the cash for an additional three months. Finally, employers have wide latitude designing the benefits of the plan and self-insured plans typically are not subject to state-mandated benefits.
Park district and special recreation association are usually smaller employers and are not able to assume the financial risk that is inherent to self-insurance. They may wish to have the protection of an insurance contract but may find their bargaining power regarding options such as cost, scope of coverage and access are limited because of their size.
However, there are intergovernmental self-insured health coverage pools that allow the typically smaller employers of the park and recreation field to take advantage of the additional savings that large employers can generate through self insurance. With the significant amount of money that employers spend on healthcare plans, it is important to choose a plan that meets employees needs, does not cost more than it should, and yet meets the employer’s basic policy objectives.
To do this, employers need to make difficult decisions concerning scope of benefits and benchmarks for choosing plan administrators and provider networks. Although the final decision rests with the employer, assistance can be provided by a consultant or broker.
- Clearly, managed care doesn’t deserve the bad rap! In fact, it has actually served as a catalyst to provide much broader and more proactive care.
- But caution is in order when making a managed care choice.
- SANDY BURK is the benefits manager for the Illinois Park Employees Health Network (IPEHN), a self-insured pool of 54 park districts and special recreation associations providing healthcare coverage for its members’ employees and dependents.
July/August 1997 /23 : Understanding Managed Care
What is the purpose of goals of care?
Introduction – As a person ages or faces serious illness, decisions about medical care become more challenging. When cure of a disease is not possible, treatments become focused on other goals such as symptom amelioration or extending life. Additionally, both the underlying disease and the treatments may cause suffering to the patient.
Finally, as patients age the outcomes of medical interventions are more uncertain due to comorbidities or frailty. Because individuals are more likely to differ in their preferences for or against treatment in these circumstances, decisions are often referred to as “preference sensitive.” 1 Preference sensitive decisions vary based on the individual values, goals and circumstances of the patient.
Goals of care is a term commonly used to refer to the entire process of making medical decisions, but it really has several components, including values, goals and treatment preferences ( Figure 1 ). It can involve making decisions for the future, often referred to as advance care planning, or making decisions about medical treatment in the present. Model of the patient and surrogate factors, process and outcomes of goals of care conversations. As patients age, their ability to make their own decisions is more likely to be impaired due to dementia, and delirium is a common cause of diminished capacity during acute illness.
Therefore surrogate decision makers, usually close family members, often are involved in the decision making process. Goals of care conversations for older adults may be held with patients, surrogates or both, but can consider the same core components. Surrogates are generally asked to rely on the patient’s previously stated preferences, when known.
When specific preferences are unknown surrogates are asked to consider how the patients’ goals and values should inform treatment decisions, a process called substituted judgment.2 While surrogate decision making introduces additional ethical and emotional considerations, the approach involves many of the same concepts and skills as goals of care conversations with patients.
Goals of care conversations require physicians to effectively communicate complex information about a medical diagnosis and its prognosis to the patient and family, elicit information about patient preferences, provide support and make shared decisions, and ensure treatments and outcomes are aligned with patient and family preferences.
The struggle for clinicians to have goals of care conversations is particularly important for geriatric providers as the need to communicate prognosis and set goals of care to alleviate suffering is both time sensitive and common. These conversations are sometimes conducted by palliative care specialists who are experts in goals of care conversations, but often these conversations are conducted by the patient’s primary physician or hospitalists.
What is a disadvantage of a care plan?
What are the main problems associations with bad care plans? – There are plenty of factors that can make a care plan poor or not fit for purpose. The first reason is that those in your care don’t have any involvement in their care plans. The information within the plans isn’t specific in setting out the needs of the person in care, the goals you want to achieve or the support that they require.
The next biggest problem is that the care plans are too complex or too brief to be useful to frontline staff or external stakeholders like inspectors or GPs. The information within it is either misleading, non-factual or both. The care plans aren’t focused on the wider holistic needs of the person in care.
A really big problem is that they contain sarcasm, rude or offensive terminology. They focus solely on the disabilities of a person rather than their abilities. The biggest and worst problem is that they are often aren’t evidence-based.
What is the strictest form of managed care?
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) – HMO’s use a “managed care” approach to healthcare. Managed care focuses on preventive care and screening for diseases early to keep costs down. HMO’s are the strictest type of insurance plan because patients can only see HMO doctors and hospitals. Patients do not pay a deductible and may pay a small co-pay.
What is the most popular form of managed care plans?
Managed Care Introduction – Managed Care Types – Advantages and Disadvantages – How to Choose the Right Plan Challenges Concerning Medical Benefits – Relationships to Employee Benefit Wheel – Web Links Page – Works Cited Whole Document (Home) Managed Care Types There are three main types of Managed Care in reference to employee benefits: Medical Care- the professional treatment for illness or injury, Dental Care- professional care for the teeth, and Vision Care- professional care for the eyes. Managed Medical Care has three subsections: HMOs, POSs, and PPOs.
For the sake of focus to attract and retain employees, the concentration of this document is Managed Medical Care due to it being the most expensive; thus, the most valuable. Individuals and employers have many plans to choose from with each offering various types of organization, service selection, and costs.
Generally, the more services required to fulfill various needs and wants, the more expensive the plan. Health Maintenance Organization The least expensive form of managed medical care is the Health Maintenance Organization (Kaiser). Upon joining an HMO, individuals pay a fixed monthly fee, called a premium.
- Generally an individual pays a small co-pay, perhaps $15.00 for each visit, and $10.00 for a prescription.
- The range of health services vary depending on the plan, so comparison of plans is of the utmost importance.
- A list of doctors and hospitals is provided and a primary care physician (PCP) can be chosen from that list.
The PCP is responsible for the individuals general health care and providing referrals to specialists if necessary. There is generally no coverage outside the network. There are exceptions to using just doctors and medical facilities on the list during times of emergency, or when medically necessary (Health Insurance in-Depth).
Preferred Provider Organization A PPO is similar to a HMO in that an individual pays a fixed monthly fee, and co-payments upon visits; however, the individual has more choices in provider selection. Unlike the HMO the PPO doesnt require a gatekeeper physician to see a specialist. Should an individual want care outside of their network, the PPO plan generally covers expenses, but at a smaller percentage.
An out of network visit usually requires a deductible. Bottom line is that a PPO gives individuals more choice, which many view as better service, and as a result is the most expensive Managed Care plan. PPOs are also the most popular form of Managed Care (Health Insurance In-Depth).
Point Of Service Point of Service (POS) medical care limits choice, but offers lower costs when compared to HMOs and PPOs. Generally an individual chooses a primary health care physician within a health care network. The physician becomes point of service. An individuals primary health care physician can refer the individual outside of the network, but with limited cost coverage.
Interestingly, POS requires that an individual do their own paperwork if seeking care outside of his/her network; individuals must fill out forms and keep track of receipts (Health Insurance In-Depth). Medical Savings Account Medical Savings Accounts are not common so the description of this medical care plan will be brief.
- Medical Savings Accounts (MSA) can only be offered by employers with 50 or less employees.
- The employee welfare policy must follow strict government guidelines.
- Tax deductible monies are deposited on a periodic basis in a MSA at costs lower then other programs.
- The trade-off for the lower cost of the program is a higher deductible should medical care be needed, perhaps for an emergency.
Financial requirements apply as listed in government guidelines, as well. Deductible limits are $1,650 – $2,500 for an individual and $3,300 – $4,950 for a family. If an MSA sounds like it might be the right way to go, get more information at healthinsuranceindepth.com.
Dental Car e Dental care insurance is not the main focus, but is certainly worth mentioning. Individuals enrolled in Dental Insurance Plans pay a monthly premium for coverage. Generally the higher the dollar figure, the better the coverage. Sometimes an individual medical coverage may cover dental; however, this is not usually the case.
There are two main types of dental plans. One is called the traditional care plan; the other is referred to as Managed Dental Care. Generally basic dental costs, such as visits and cleaning, are covered under both plans. Managed Dental Care works much like a PPO; individuals can choose a primary dentist (much like a primary physician) from a list of select locations only.
Premiums are lower then traditional care, but choices are minimal (Health Insurance In-Depth). For more information see the web-links section for Dental Insurance carriers with descriptions that is attached to the document. Vision Care Many vision service providers offer a managed care approach to vision care as opposed to the traditional fee-for-service plan.
Group plans that can bring down costs significantly are affordable and beneficial to all. The goal for the employer is to find the best quality plan at a reasonable cost, with employee satisfaction as the number one priority. With an employer paid managed care plan, the employer pays a set monthly rate per enrolled employee (including spouse or family).
What is the best change management model in healthcare?
The following are the 3 most effective healthcare change management models: –
The ADKAR model is one of the two foundational change management models created by Prosci Methodology. The ADKAR meaning is based on the five stages that make up its acronym: Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement.
Awareness The first stage in the ADKAR change management model is when an organization understands that a change needs to be made. For example, if a company wants to increase its customer service and efficiency levels. Desire When people want something, they take action to get it. Creating desire in employees can be done through various tactics such as: convincing them that a new strategy will lead to better results, or giving rewards or incentives for implementing changes. Encouraging feedback from your team members also makes them more invested in achieving success with this new approach. Employees come to believe that they need this change for their own well-being. Knowledge Employees become knowledgeable about what needs to happen during the change process by being informed on all aspects of the initiative, including why and how it should be enacted. They have been given guidelines for accepting responsibility if needed and have an understanding of their role in carrying out these tasks. Employees have to understand what needs to be done and how they can do it. Ability It is crucial for employees to have the ability to carry out these tasks. Employees must be able to use their knowledge and skills in order to do what is expected of them, no matter how difficult or challenging it may be. Reinforcement Change leaders have to recognize that change has been made with positive results by reinforcing desired behavior through rewards or other incentives.
This type of model is best for your healthcare organization if you have a goal of change that has been identified and you want to ensure your employees are on board with the change. The ADKAR change management model can be used for any type of implementation in healthcare, but it is most effective when someone wants to increase their level of understanding about productivity or make changes to processes within an organization. The McKinsey 7-S model is a collection of seven independent dimensions for modelling an organization, which include: physical organization structures; qualities or resources of each structure that are leveraged towards achieving an aim; existing company policies and documentation; the way the company is organized reflects what is needed now; and core values (long term goals/objectives).
Strategy After assessing the practice’s strategy, including its strengths and weaknesses, the change manager identifies where change will be required to align with this new goal. This stage is intended to identify potential pitfalls for success as well as opportunities that could lead to a more successful outcome. The first step in identifying these areas includes answering questions related to how important they are and what level of effort would need to be put into them if change were needed or desired. Allocating resources based on importance can help an organization reach their goals faster and avoid wasted effort by not spending time on things which do not contribute much value or strength toward achieving the ultimate aim of the company or institution. Structure The organization needs to recognize the physical organizational structures that are in place. This step includes identifying the qualities and resources of each organizational structure that can be leveraged to help change happen. Systems It is important to understand the existing company policies and documentation. During this process, a change leader would reevaluate the way that the company is organized to make sure it reflects what needs are being satisfied now. Employees would also understand how processes can reinforce desired changes by aligning themselves with organizational values. The change manager needs to identify where potential obstacles lie and determine plans on how best to address them before they become problems or when they arise during implementation. This includes looking at data sources like customer surveys or focus groups as well as qualitative research. Shared Values You must understand what the core values of your organization are and then define the long term goals and objectives of your company. Staff Your change leaders would engage with staff members to perform a needs analysis to discover what people need in order for change management efforts to be effective. This includes understanding their roles, strengths and weaknesses as well as gauging their readiness levels when it comes to change. Style Corporate culture influences change and adapting accordingly. There will be some changes that need a formal, top-down approach while others may require an organic, grassroots effort. Recognizing which type of organizational change is necessary for each situation can help lead to success in implementing these types of change management methods successfully. Skills The current skill sets of your healthcare organization’s employees should be evaluated. The change manager should closely monitor the skills of their healthcare workers and make sure that those skills are in line with what is needed for change management.
The McKinsey 7-S change model has been implemented by many healthcare organizations with great success due to its effectiveness in changing behaviors while simultaneously improving productivity. These types of change management principles can be used successfully with organizations that are experiencing problems related to staff skills, processes and culture. Kotter’s 8-Step Change Management Model is an extensive change model. It focuses on change as a process that has eight phases, with the first three steps being pre-intervention:
Creating a sense of urgency Creating a sense of urgency is the first step in Kotter’s change management model. It involves convincing people that there is need for change and that they should support this change. You can do this by using data to show how things are not working well enough or by pointing out new challenges, Rather than focusing on the negatives, present an opportunity. Forming a powerful coalition At this step, you need to form a powerful coalition of people who are in favor of change. The power and size of the group is important. Some people might not want change, so it is up to the leader to convince them that there will be benefits for all involved if they choose to change their ways. You would energize followers by giving them tasks that can help wide adoption of the change. Creating an organizational vision for change This step includes four sub-steps where goals and performance standards are set, objectives (which will consist of short term wins) are defined, and strategies are identified to strengthen support for change from all involved parties. Communicating the plan This step requires two parts: telling others about the changes and listening to feedback they have regarding how it may affect them personally or their daily operations. The more aware the employees are of the changes and the more they willfully participate in the change, the more successful the change implementation will be. Removing obstacles The objective of this step is to reevaluate policies with respect to productivity such as absenteeism, employee turnover rates and current benefits. It is important to reduce the barriers to change adoption and to remove the current obstacles that will inhibit success. Creating short-term wins This step is where change leaders need to recognize the collective effort of the company. This will establish a sense of accomplishment and can be achieved by focusing on the organization’s shared goals. Build on the change After the implementation of the change, the change leader should assess the effectiveness of the new policies. They should then develop a new, comprehensive plan of action to address any issues that have arisen. This step is also important as it will help show employees the organization’s commitment to change. Anchor the changes in the culture A change in policy cannot be successful until it becomes part of the company’s culture. Change leaders need to be persistent and address any issues that arise. The change leader needs to remember the importance of this step in order for everyone involved with the company’s culture to understand how important these changes are, even if they are perceived as difficult or disruptive. Impactful change cannot happen until it becomes part of corporate culture, so have patience and focus on being effective at every stage.
This model is most effective if your organization is in need of change that is more than just a policy update. The Kotter’s 8-Step Change Management Model can help your organization by making changes that are more effective and easier to implement.
Change needs to be managed by looking at all aspects of your current processes including not only how they are structured, but also who is involved, where they take place, and when it happens. The best way to keep your organization running smoothly is by implementing a change management model that will work for you.
- It is important to know which change models are the most effective, and how they can be used in different settings.
- If you are looking at ways to increase productivity or streamline processes within your workplace, take some time to explore what options are available so you can find one that works best for your needs.
: The 3 Best Change Management Models in Healthcare Practices | Giva
What is the unique advantage of managed services?
3. Keep Costs Low – From a cost perspective, one of the clear benefits of managed services is that it lowers labor costs and eliminates the cost of hiring and training new IT staff. The ability to have skills available on a scalable basis is incredibly compelling, and most MSPs offer a hybrid model of onshore and offshore resources, which lowers the average effective rate and widens your resource base.
How do many managed care plans try to reduce costs over the long term?
Many managed-care plans try to reduce costs over the long term by paying for routine preventive care. The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health advises consumers to consult with their conventional health care provider before beginning complementary therapies for serious conditions.
What are the four elements of a care plan?
Sample Nursing Care Plan – The sample nursing care plan is divided into four columns that include the nursing diagnosis, goals and outcomes, interventions, and evaluation. Each patient may have a varying number of nursing diagnoses based on their needs but each of these columns must be included.
By using this format, consistency and accuracy is included and ensures continuity of care. Each nurse should be thinking about these four areas when assessing their patients to formulate the nursing care plan and to ensure that the plan is not only created for the sake of completion, but rather to be utilized to achieve positive patient outcomes.
Despite the idea that nursing care plans can be difficult to formulate, the nurse must keep in mind the importance they serve and how the goals set forth in the plans are to be used for progression among the patients. The care plan serves as a guideline for other team members to follow.
How many managed care organizations are there in the US?
Corporate earnings statements for 2020 are now out. It was a very good year for the five largest health care companies in the Medicaid managed care market: Aetna/CVS Health; Anthem; Centene; Molina; and UnitedHealthcare. Each company experienced an increase in Medicaid enrollment between December 2019 and December 2020; in total, their Medicaid enrollment grew by 32%.
- We’re confident that Medicaid revenues went up as well, but not all of the companies reported those numbers.
- We also can’t tell whether Medicaid earnings were up and, if so, by how much.
- But none of the companies told its investors that it has any plans to exit the Medicaid market any time soon.
- To the contrary: several expect further growth in Medicaid enrollment and revenues in 2021.
Why does this matter? Together, these five companies owned 112 of the 281 Medicaid managed care organizations (MCOs) with which states contracted as of September 2020. Each company had subsidiaries in over 12 different states. And as of the end of 2020, according to parent company data, these MCOs were responsible for the delivery of needed health services to over 35 million Medicaid beneficiaries.
- Company enrollment figures are not broken down by age, but assuming children are enrolled in proportion to their enrollment in Medicaid, these MCOs cover an estimated 14 million children or more.
- If Medicaid is to work for children and families, these companies—and the other MCOs with which they compete—have to perform.
There’s little question about their financial performance last year. Across all health insurance markets—commercial, Medicare Advantage, Medicare Part D, Marketplaces, and Medicaid—the companies posted “operating income”/”earnings” from “operations”/”operating gain” totaling $28.1 billion—with a “b.” Each is in the FORTUNE 500, and in 2020, four ranked in the top 100: CVS Health (5), UnitedHealth Group (7), Anthem (29), and Centene (42).
- What follows is a brief summary of each company’s results for 2020 drawn from its most recent earnings statement.
- Market capitalization figures are current as of February 22, 2021.
- Aetna/CVSHealth (Market Cap $ 91.8 billion) CVS Health has three segments; the Health Benefits Segment includes Aetna, which CVS Health acquired in 2018.
Operating income for this segment in 2020 was $5.2 billion on total revenues of $75.5 billion. The company had 2.7 million Medicaid enrollees, who comprised 12% of its total enrollment of 23.4 million. Medicaid enrollment increased by 39%, or 767,000 beneficiaries, over the course of the year.
- The earnings statement does not provide any revenue or operating income information specific to Medicaid.
- Anthem, Inc.
- Market Cap $72.2 billion) Anthem reported an operating gain of $6.4 billion on total revenues of $121.9 billion.
- Its Medicaid enrollment was 8.8 million, or 21% of its total enrollment of 42.9 million.
The company noted: “Government Business enrollment increased by 1.9 million lives compared to the prior year, attributable to Medicaid, reflecting organic growth as a result of the temporary suspension of eligibility recertification efforts in our markets as well as our acquisition of the Medicaid plans in Missouri and Nebraska and growth in Medicare Advantage.” (Medicaid enrollment accounted for 1.6 million of this increase).
Centene (Market Cap $33.8 billion). Centene reported earnings from operations of $3.1 billion on total revenues of $111.1 billion. Medicaid enrollment was 13.6 million, which represents a little over half of total enrollment of 25.5 million. Medicaid revenues were $74.8 billion, accounting for two thirds of Centene’s total revenues.
Both Medicaid enrollment and revenues increased sharply in 2020; enrollment by 4.9 million or 56.7%; revenues by $22.9 billion, or 44%. The company attributed its overall revenue increase to “the acquisition of WellCare and growth in the Medicaid and Health Insurance Marketplace businesses, driven by expansions and new programs in many of our states.
Additionally, the net effect of the pandemic increased our revenues due to the suspension of Medicaid eligibility redeterminations.” Molina (Market Cap $12.9 billion) Molina reported operating income of $1.1 billion on total revenues of $19.4 billion. The company had 3.6 million Medicaid enrollees, who accounted for 89% of its total enrollment of 4.0 million.
Medicaid revenues were $14.3 billion, over three quarters of total revenues. The company experienced growth in both Medicaid enrollment (up 22%) and revenues (up 14%) year-to-year. Molina also reported an MCR (medical costs as a percentage of premium revenue) of 87.4% for its Medicaid line of business; none of the other companies were equally forthcoming.
UnitedHealth Group (Market Cap $308.6 billion) UnitedHealth Group has two reportable business segments: UnitedHealthcare and Optum. The following results are for the health care benefits segment, UnitedHealthcare. Its earnings from operations on revenues of $200.9 billion were $12.4 billion, or 6.2%. Medicaid enrollment was 6.6 million, or 14% of UnitedHealthcare’s total enrollment of 48.4 million.
“Community and State” revenues, which presumably include Medicaid revenues, were $46.5 billion, an increase of $2.7 billion from 2019. It expects “Medicaid growth with new market entries in Kentucky, Indiana, and North Carolina along with a strong proposal pipeline for both existing and new states” in 2021. While the information available from the earnings statements is fragmentary, one trend comes through loud and clear. Despite the pandemic-driven recession—and in part because of it—each company saw a significant increase in its Medicaid enrollment during 2020.
As several of the companies noted, a main contributing factor was the prohibition on termination of coverage for Medicaid beneficiaries during the coronavirus Public Health Emergency (PHE). By reducing eligibility “churn,” this prohibition, in combination with the increase in the number of Americans eligible for Medicaid due to the loss of employment, had the effect of increasing Medicaid enrollment in all states; in managed care states, this meant an increase in MCO enrollment.
The Biden Administration has already notified the Governors that the PHE will “likely remain in place for the entirety of 2021.” The Congressional Budget Office projected that the national unemployment rate this year would average 5.7% (last month’s unemployment rate was 6.3% ).
As a result, Medicaid enrollment will likely increase in many if not all of the states where these companies own MCOs. This, in turn, could translate into a further increase in revenues for these firms as well others competing in the Medicaid managed care market. The Big Five demonstrably know how to make money.
And they know how to increase their Medicaid market share. But do their MCOs know how to deliver care to children and families? That’s hard to say. Not only is there little transparency about the financial performance of the Medicaid business of these companies—see table above—but there’s also little transparency about the performance of their MCOs.
This is a public policy failure, but it can be fixed. At the state level, agencies should be monitoring the financial performance of all MCOs—not just the subsidiaries of the Big Five—and posting the results. They should also be standing up child health dashboards. At the federal level, CMS should make sure that states and MCOs meet existing transparency requirements,
And at the corporate level, managements should accept that much is expected of those to whom large amounts of public funds and large numbers of program beneficiaries are entrusted, starting with transparency. More on Medicaid Managed Care:
Medicaid Managed Care: 2021 Results for the “Big Five” at Q2 Medicaid Managed Care: 2021 Results for the “Big Five” in Q3 Medicaid Managed Care Financial Results for 2021: A Big Year for the Big Five Managed Care Topic Page
What is a panel provider?
Panel Provider means a mental health or substance abuse provider who has been selected and has agreed to provide services in accordance with the terms of participation established by the Program and has executed an agreement with the carrier.
Which of the following is the most accessible healthcare professional?
Conclusions – This study found that patients visit their community pharmacies approximately 1 and a half to 2 times as often as they visit their physicians or other QHP. These findings emphasize the accessibility of community pharmacists and support the use of community pharmacists within value-based care programs to improve patient engagement in the community.
Who is the healthcare professional who types reports for care providers?
A transcriptionist types reports dictated by care providers.
Which was the first commercial insurance company in the United States?
Key Takeaways –
The first insurance company in the U.S. dates back to colonial days: the Philadelphia Contributionship, co-founded by Ben Franklin in 1752.Throughout U.S. history, new types of insurance have evolved as new risks (such as the automobile) have emerged.In the late 19th century, scandals and shady practices rocked the young insurance industry.Under the McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945, insurance companies became exempt from most federal regulation and are instead subject to state law.In recent years, the internet has had a major impact on how insurance is sold and how insurance companies evaluate risk.
Investopedia / Ellen Lindner