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What Are Indexes Registries And Healthcare Databases?

What Are Indexes Registries And Healthcare Databases
Indexes and registers (or registries) allow health information to be maintained and retrieved by health care facilities for the purpose of education, planning, and research.

What is indexing in medical terms?

Understand Medical Record Indexing process and its Outsourcing Benefits Retrieval of Medical Reports as and when required is essential for timely diagnosis and treatment based on the patients’ medical history.should be the integral process of any healthcare system irrespective of the practice or hospital size for storage of patient records without loss and easy retrieval.

Federal Law on Medical Records Maintenance: With the US Federal Government mandating Physical Medical Records to be retained for a minimum of seven to ten years, it is crucial that every practice and physician group has an effective process for Medical Records to be indexed appropriately to secure PHI. Process of Indexing Medical Records:

Medical Records Indexing is the process of maintaining or arranging the patient’s medical reports in Chronological order or in alphabetical, numerical or by DOS, Specialty, Physician Name, etc., or by any particular methodology, the practice or the physician requires.

Electronic Medical Records (EMR) – This saves Medical reports from an individual practice or hospital Electronic Health Records (EHR) – Can be accessed anywhere and help transmit medical records as required.

Maintaining the Medical Records of every case for a period of seven to ten years as mandated by US Federal Government can mean a lot of effort and a streamlined process to ensure they are available to be retrieved when needed. Outsourcing Indexing Medical Records is proven to be effortless, efficient and cost-effective comparatively as having in-house staff to handle such complex and laborious processes can mostly lead to additional costs and ineptitude processes causing stress during patient care and affecting Medical Billing Quality.

Skilled workforce producing quality results at a competitive priceQuick and timely Process resulting in great patient care and Quality Medical BillingInstantly retrievable data Indexed as per the clients’ requisition Efficient Indexing of Medical Records leads to Quality and Timely Patient CareSafe and secure Data Management to ensure PHI is accessible only to authorized usersEasy location of specific data or reports by Healthcare Practitioners and Physicians

What is a database of healthcare data?

Healthcare databases are systems into which healthcare providers routinely enter clinical and laboratory data. One of the most commonly used forms of healthcare databases are electronic health records (EHRs). Practitioners enter routine clinical and laboratory data into EHRs during usual practice as a record of the patient’s care.

  1. Other healthcare databases include claims databases, which are maintained by payers for reimbursement purposes, pharmacist databases (see Pharmacy and Health Insurance Databases ) and patient registries ( see Patient Registries ).
  2. Healthcare databases can be used as data sources for the generation of real-world evidence (RWE).

Examples of initiatives for healthcare databases The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has published a position paper ( Position Statement and Guidance Electronic Health Records, MHRA 2015 ) on compliance issues and user requirements for EHRs.

The TRANSFoRm Project aims to develop a ‘rapid learning healthcare system’ that can improve both patient safety and the conduct and volume of clinical research in Europe. The Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) Project of the EU’s Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) has developed a technological platform that combines hospital data across countries, to identify sites and patients for trials. A tool developed by the EHR for Clinical Research Functional Profile Project (EHRCR) allows doctors to evaluate the quality and security of their EHR systems and provide study teams with this information. The Sentinel Initiative is a system developed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that links existing healthcare data from multiple databases, to actively monitor the safety of medical products in real time and to help address the heterogeneity of data collection that currently exists. The EHDEN (European Health Data and Evidence Network) project, part of the EU’s Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI), is developing a federated network of databases, standardised to a common data model, to improve the ability to study real world health outcomes across diverse healthcare systems and to support open science collaboration in Europe.

Real-world data on risks and benefits : the use of routinely collected data, such as data from EHRs, allows assessment of the benefits and risks of different medical treatments, as well as the relative effectiveness of medicines in the real world. Studies can be carried out quickly : studies based on real-world data (RWD) are faster to conduct than randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

Data are not collected for research purposes : practitioners and healthcare professionals are not trained to collect data. The data collection process may not be clear and may result in imprecise, incorrect or incomplete data entry, however this may be avoided or reduced by training staff. There may be interference with the usual care provided to patients, for example by altering treatment decisions, which could result in a decrease in the generalisability of study results. Invalid, inaccurate or incomplete data: routinely collected data may lack detailed information on indications, patient characteristics, treatments and events, and may be less structured ( van Staa et al, 2014 ). In addition, data are typically obtained during clinical visits, which may be infrequent or irregular. Quality and completeness of data varies within and among databases: routinely used healthcare databases are varied and heterogeneous. Data quality checks within the data collection system that detect incorrect or missing data, and specify procedures for correction, may ensure that differences within and among databases are detected and accounted for. Variable quality and completeness: EHR systems include patient data beyond that needed for a study. Access to these data (rather than study-specific data) raises right-to-privacy concerns.

Advantages of EHRs from a patient-perspective:

Collecting and storing patient health information in electronic databases enables clinicians to keep track of patients’ conditions over time. Information can quickly be accessed anywhere at any time, and all the relevant information is kept in one place. Using EHRs can help clinicians to give patients treatment that is more effective and better aligned to patients’ needs.

Appropriate measures to safeguard patients’ data are necessary. Additional security features should be used when necessary, and patients should be provided with clear information on how the data will be stored, used and protected. Rachel Kalf, Zorginstituut Nederland (ZIN) Anna-Katharina Meinecke, Bayer

What serves as an index for the medical record?

It is essential to organize and store important patient data like demographics, and treatment information in one place so that it can be retrieved easily later. Medical record indexing is an integral part of organizing records. Organized medical records help attorneys access all the information regarding the plaintiff’s injury/illness, and treatment course.

  • Evidence extracted from the medical records helps attorneys to flawlessly litigate the plaintiff’s case. If these records are properly aligned, it would be easier to access them at the time of need.
  • Multiple medical records are required in certain cases. The number of records depends upon the nature of the case. The types of records include Physician Notes, Emergency Department Reports, Medication Administration Records, Diagnostic Tests and more. Attorneys have to take note of the dates of the services provided. Medical records indexing helps attorneys to navigate through the required records based on the number assigned to the location.
  • Indexing helps to quickly identify the medical records that have the vital information which determines the fate of the case.
  • If the medical records are indexed either in alphabetical order or chronological order, attorneys are not required to look through every binder to extract information.
  • Sorting and subsequent indexing helps to assess the completeness of the required documents. It also checks whether the testimony given by the plaintiff is accurate or not.
  • HIPAA compliance can be ensured.
  • Any missing medical records can be identified easily.
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Sorting, Indexing and Hyperlinking of Medical Records Sorting Medical records are sorted by classifying relevant information that supports the attorney in the litigation process. The sorted medical records are chronologically arranged and indexed. This gives an accurate timeline of all the medical encounters of the plaintiff. Four types of records that have to be sorted and indexed are:

  1. Medical records : The index consists of the listing of medical records that the attorney has received. Dates of service and the number assigned to the location will also be specified. Diagnoses can be added to the index to quickly identify the records that have important information.
  2. Radiographs : A radiograph index has all films and disks of radiographs, including x-rays, CT scans, MRIs, ultrasounds, etc. The index contains dates of service, the type of radiograph and the location where it is stored. Each disk of radiographs is assigned a number.
  3. Pathology specimens : They are indexed by dates of service, the location where the specimens are accessed and the specimen number.
  4. Pleadings : These are documents that are filed with the court during the litigation process. Pleadings are indexed by ascending numbers as per the directions of the attorney. Pleadings are filed in reverse chronological order.

Medical records organization facilitates the access of all the necessary facts in an easily detectable format by following the steps given below:

  • The document types of medical records are closely analyzed. The data regarding the medical treatment/ service providers, encounter dates and other customized data fields are accurately captured.
  • The electronic medical records are categorized into sections and subsections.
  • The documents are sorted according to the date range within the section.
  • Duplicate multiple records are removed.
  • Attorneys’ requests are accommodated while sorting orders are customized.
  • Separate duplicate records are delivered when requested.
  • The required documents are delivered in PDF format with Tab sheets.


  • After professional sorting of the records, they have to be paginated.
  • There are standard legal requirements that have to be followed while paginating the medical records.
  • The numbering starts from ” Page 1″ and steadily increases throughout the entire medical record.
  • These numbers will be referenced in the Indexing and summarization sections.
  • Then an index is created which helps attorneys navigate through the entire pile of documents easily.


  • Hyperlinks are embedded in the indexed medical records.
  • The process of hyperlinking allows attorneys to easily navigate from vital medical data and timelines to the corresponding source medical records.

Medical records indexing enables attorneys to fetch information quickly and this expedites the data extraction from the voluminous medical documents. As a company providing medical records review for attorneys, we incorporate best indexing techniques and this helps attorneys focus on the core competencies without investing valuable time in sorting and indexing records.

What is the definition of indexing as it is used in medical data classification?

What is Medical Record indexing? How Impacts Patient Data Management Medical record indexing is a popular practise that entails streamlined organizing, cataloguing and storing of patients` medical information. It has evolved as an integral part of medical operations.

  • In the United States of America, it is a mandate to maintain patients medical records for a minimum of seven years.
  • These meticulous operations have been carried out for years across hospitals, clinics and other healthcare centers, leading to a rise in demand for professional medical record indexing.

Most of the medical record indexing companies are based out of developing countries and this creates more job opportunities in the trillion-dollar healthcare sector.

What are the most common types of databases found in healthcare?

Is a collection of data organized in such a way that its contents can be easily accessed, managed, reported, and updated. Common databases found in healthcare include Medicare Provider Analysis and Review File, National Practitioner Data Bank, and National health Care survey.

What are indexes used for in healthcare?

Indexes and registers (or registries) allow health information to be maintained and retrieved by health care facilities for the purpose of education, planning, and research.

What are 3 indexes examples?

Market Indexes as Benchmarks – As a hypothetical portfolio of holdings, indexes act as benchmark comparisons for a variety of purposes across the financial markets. As mentioned, the Dow Jones, S&P 500, and Nasdaq Composite are three popular U.S. indexes.

  1. These three indexes include the 30 largest stocks in the U.S.
  2. By market cap, the 500 largest stocks, and all of the stocks on the Nasdaq exchange, respectively.
  3. Since they include some of the most significant U.S.
  4. Stocks, these benchmarks can be a good representation of the overall U.S.
  5. Stock market.
  6. Other indexes have more specific characteristics that create a more narrowly targeted market focus.

For example, indexes can represent micro-sectors or maturity in the case of fixed income, Indexes can also be created to represent a geographic segment of the market such as those that track the emerging markets or stocks in the United Kingdom and Europe.

The FTSE 100 is an example of such an index. Investors may choose to build a portfolio with diversified exposure to several indexes or individual holdings from a variety of indexes. They may also use benchmark values and performance to follow investments by segment. Some investors will allocate their investment portfolios based on the returns or expected returns of certain segments.

Further, a specific index may act as a benchmark for a portfolio or a mutual fund,

What are the different types of indexing?

Conclusion –

  • Indexing is a technique that uses data structures to optimize the searching time of a database query.
  • Index table contains two columns namely Search Key and Data Pointer or Reference.
  • There are three types of indexing namely Ordered, Single-level, and multi-level.
  • Single Level Indexing is divided into three types namely Primary(index table is created using primary keys), Secondary(index table is created using candidate keys), and Clustered(index table is created using non-key values).
  • Ordered Indexing is divided into two types namely dense(index table contains records for every search key value of the database) and sparse(do not include search key for every record).
  • Multi-level Indexing uses B+ Trees to store data pointers.
  • Indexing helps in faster data retrieval and better performance.
  • Most commonly used indexing attributes are: Standard (B-trees) and Bitmaps, Ascending and Descending attribute, Column and Functional attribute, Single-Column, and Concatenated attribute, Non-partitioned and Partitioned attribute.

What are the four categories of indexing?

4 Types Of Direct Indexing & Advisor Technology Solutions First introduced in the 1970s, index funds have grown in popularity over time thanks to their ability to provide broad-based diversification at (typically) very low costs, making their benefits available to investors of any level of wealth.

And while mutual funds and Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) have been the dominant way for investors to get index exposure, thanks to improved technological capabilities and reduced trading costs, direct indexing – buying the individual component stocks within an index – has emerged as an alternative tool with a range of potential use cases.

Historically, direct indexing was developed as a means to unlock the tax losses of individual stocks in an index – even if the index itself was up – and was primarily used only by the most affluent investors (who had the highest tax rates and benefitted the most from the available loss harvesting).

  1. However, direct indexing can be used not only to harvest tax losses but also to harvest capital gains (particularly for those taxpayers in the 10% and 12% tax brackets).
  2. In addition, direct indexing can provide tax benefits to investors who are charitably inclined by allowing them to donate the underlying shares within an index that have the largest gains, thereby helping them to maximize their tax savings.
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For those whose primary goal is to benefit from a more personalized indexing strategy that still gains broad market exposure while specifically adjusting for personal preferences, using a personalized index can ensure the investor’s capital will support the exact industries or companies they wish to support (while also saving on the management fees otherwise charged by more packaged ESG/SRI mutual funds and ETFs).

The direct indexing framework also is relevant for advisors whose default strategy is to own “the market” (i.e., broad-based index funds), but who also want to overlay various rules that subsequently modify or tilt the allocations based on their own (or their clients’) investment preferences or outlook, such as over- (or under-)weighting certain sectors, factors, or segments of the market.

Finally, direct indexing can be used to help a client with a large, highly appreciated or concentrated investment position, or one whose human capital is tied up in one company or industry. For these clients, an advisor can build around the holdings committed to an existing company or industry by diversifying the remaining assets into an index, better positioning the client away from exposure to a potential downturn in their company’s (or its industry’s) performance.

The distinctions between the four types of direct indexing are important, as the various uses of direct indexing necessitate very different capabilities from the platforms themselves. Which in turn means that more than multiple different indexing providers can each have the potential for breakout success, by building the best-in-class solution for a particular direct indexing approach while recognizing that what it takes to be most successful in one direct indexing category may be very different from what it takes in others.

Ultimately, the key point is that the value of direct indexing is no longer limited to tax benefits for high-net-worth clients. The developing uses for direct indexing – personalized indexes, rules-based advisor investment strategies, and customized completion portfolios – can benefit a wider range of clients.

And while it remains to be seen whether direct indexing will start to displace mutual funds and ETFs in advisor-managed portfolios, its expanded uses, increased outside funding into direct indexing providers, and growing platform capabilities, suggest that direct indexing’s value to advisors is likely to expand in the future! First introduced in the 1970s, index funds have grown in popularity over time thanks to their ability to provide broad-based diversification at (typically) very low costs, which makes their benefits available to investors at any level of assets.

While mutual funds were the dominant index fund vehicle for years, Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs) have gained in popularity, particularly over the past decade, thanks to their often-lower costs than mutual funds, coupled with their tradability during market hours (whereas mutual fund transactions are only settled after the market close).

Compared to mutual funds, ETFs also have a tax advantage, as the creation/redemption mechanics of the formation and liquidation of ETFs allows them to continuously rotate out older lower-basis shares for more recent higher-basis shares, minimizing or often fully eliminating any taxable capital gains distributions.

The caveat, though, is that while ETFs are internally effective at minimizing capital gains distributions (especially compared to mutual funds), they cannot necessarily generate pass-through losses on the underlying holdings in the ETF. For instance, if the S&P 500 in the aggregate is up for the year, but 150 of the individual stocks in the index are down, the ETF may not generate any capital gains distributions, but the investor would have no means of harvesting the 150 stocks that were at a loss.

  1. Enter Direct Indexing.
  2. Historically, direct indexing was developed as a means to unlock the tax losses of individual stocks in an index – even if the index itself was up – and was primarily used by the most affluent investors (who had the highest tax rates and benefitted the most from the available loss harvesting).

However, developments in technology have opened up direct indexing to a much wider range of investors (as well as their advisors!) and to an expanding number of potential uses beyond their pure tax-loss-harvesting roots. In today’s environment, there are effectively four different types of direct indexing – tax-focused, personalized investor preferences, rules-based, and customized portfolios – each requiring slightly different technology solutions.

What are the two types of indexing?

Index architectures are classified as clustered or non-clustered. Clustered indexes are indexes whose order of the rows in the data pages corresponds to the order of the rows in the index. This order is why only one clustered index can exist in any table, whereas, many non-clustered indexes can exist in the table.

What is SQL used for in healthcare?

SQL is often used to manipulate and analyze patient information stored in clinical databases. For example, it can be used to build dashboards on user health data, generate patient reports based on input from medical professionals, and even create searches against large databases like the Covid-19 tracker.

Which type of database is most commonly used in healthcare cloud database?

Relational Databases in Healthcare Relational databases are historically the first databases, that’s why they are so widely used in different industries including healthcare. The main goal of a relational database is to reduce data duplication. Relational databases store single pieces of information within tables, familiar to everybody today, using predefined relationships between them, like “this patient has this name/surname in the Patient Database Table and has this diagnosis from the Diagnosis Database Table”.

Such databases are also known as SQL databases because SQL programming language is used to store, manipulate, and retrieve data from them. Talking about databases we can’t ignore infrastructure issues around databases, because they do not exist in a vacuum. In fact, healthcare businesses choose a database not on the fact of whether it’s relational or not but by taking into account hosting providers and their services.

Professional Developers mostly use relational databases like PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, and Microsoft SQL Server.

What does index mean in records?

What is the difference between an inventory and an index? – An inventory describes how records are organized in boxes, books, or digital file structures. For example, an inventory of transferred boxes might read “Box 1: Cases 1-50; Box 2: Cases 51-100,” and so on.

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What does it mean to index records?

Records indexing is the process of setting up a way to find files and records quickly and effectively. The standard methods are card, strip, rotary, and book/page. Each indexing tool shows where records are located and any references to other documents.

What are the tools of indexing?

With respect to indexing, Microsoft has two tools built into SQL Server that can be used to help identify indexes that can improve database performance. These are the missing index dynamic management objects (DMOs) and the Database Engine Tuning Advisor (DTA).

Why is indexing used in databases?

Database index – Wikipedia Data structure for query optimization in databases A database index is a that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a at the cost of additional writes and storage space to maintain the index data structure. Indexes are used to quickly locate data without having to search every row in a database table every time a database table is accessed.

  1. Indexes can be created using one or more, providing the basis for both rapid random and efficient access of ordered records.
  2. An index is a copy of selected columns of data, from a table, that is designed to enable very efficient search.
  3. An index normally includes a “key” or direct link to the original row of data from which it was copied, to allow the complete row to be retrieved efficiently.

Some databases extend the power of indexing by letting developers create indexes on column values that have been transformed by functions or, For example, an index could be created on upper(last_name), which would only store the upper-case versions of the last_name field in the index.

How does database indexing work?

How Does Indexing Work Indexing is the way to get an unordered table into an order that will maximize the query’s efficiency while searching. When a table is unindexed, the order of the rows will likely not be discernible by the query as optimized in any way, and your query will therefore have to search through the rows linearly.

company_id unit unit_cost
10 12 1.15
12 12 1.05
14 18 1.31
18 18 1.34
11 24 1.15
16 12 1.31
10 12 1.15
12 24 1.3
18 6 1.34
18 12 1.35
14 12 1.95
21 18 1.36
12 12 1.05
20 6 1.31
18 18 1.34
11 24 1.15
14 24 1.05

If we were to run the following query: SELECT company_id, units, unit_cost FROM index_test WHERE company_id = 18 The database would have to search through all 17 rows in the order they appear in the table, from top to bottom, one at a time. So to search for all of the potential instances of the company_id number 18, the database must look through the entire table for all appearances of 18 in the company_id column.

This will only get more and more time consuming as the size of the table increases. As the sophistication of the data increases, what could eventually happen is that a table with one billion rows is joined with another table with one billion rows; the query now has to search through twice the amount of rows costing twice the amount of time.

You can see how this becomes problematic in our ever data saturated world. Tables increase in size and searching increases in execution time. Querying an unindexed table, if presented visually, would look like this: What Are Indexes Registries And Healthcare Databases What indexing does is sets up the column you’re search conditions are on in a sorted order to assist in optimizing query performance. With an index on the company_id column, the table would, essentially, “look” like this:

company_id unit unit_cost
10 12 1.15
10 12 1.15
11 24 1.15
11 24 1.15
12 12 1.05
12 24 1.3
12 12 1.05
14 18 1.31
14 12 1.95
14 24 1.05
16 12 1.31
18 18 1.34
18 6 1.34
18 12 1.35
18 18 1.34
20 6 1.31
21 18 1.36

Now, the database can search for company_id number 18 and return all the requested columns for that row then move on to the next row. If the next row’s comapny_id number is also 18 then it will return the all the columns requested in the query. If the next row’s company_id is 20, the query knows to stop searching and the query will finish.

What is classified indexes?

N. A list of headings, organized into groups based on similar characteristics rather than in alphabetical order, that points to information relevant to the heading in materials organized in some other manner.

What is a database and how can it be used in healthcare?

Medical Databases will Support the Future of the Medical and Pharmaceutical Fields! – A medical database is an integrated database in which medical information collected from medical institutions and patients are stored. By collecting and analyzing information such as expenses invoice data, medical institution data, and pharmacy data, this big data can be of great help to medical practices at medical institutions and new drug developments at pharmaceutical companies.

What are the big 3 indexes?

Key Takeaways –

There are approximately 5,000 U.S. indexes.The three most widely followed indexes in the U.S. are the S&P 500, Dow Jones Industrial Average, and Nasdaq Composite.The Wilshire 5000 includes all the stocks from the U.S. stock market.Indexes can be constructed in a wide variety of ways but they are commonly identified generally by capitalization and sector segregation.

Who are the Big 3 index providers?

The index industry has long been dominated by three providers: S&P Dow Jones Indices, MSCI, and FTSE Russell. In 2020, these companies made up 70% of global index industry revenues valued at $4.1 billion. In 2021, revenues increased to $5 billion, according to Burton-Taylor International Consulting.

The big three make, on average, profit margins of 70% to 80%, a figure that has caught the eye of regulators, particularly the UK’s Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). In March 2020, the FCA began You are currently unable to print this content. Please contact [email protected] to find out more.

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What are the three major indicators of health used worldwide?

Three indicators of health have been studied worldwide: infant mortality, life expectancy, and subjective well-being.

What are the 3 most commonly referred to indexes in the US and how are they different what do they measure?

Indices as Benchmarks – Indexes serve as benchmarks for different purposes in the financial markets. As mentioned, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, Nasdaq Composite, and S&P 500 are the three most popular U.S. indexes. The three indexes contain the 30 largest stocks in the U.S.

By market capitalization, all stocks on the Nasdaq Exchange, and the 500 largest stocks, respectively. Benchmarks can be a good indicator of the overall U.S. stock market since they include some of the most valuable U.S. stocks. Investors can also use performance and benchmark values to follow investments by segments.

Some investors may diversify their investment portfolios based on the returns or expected returns of certain segments. Furthermore, a specific index may act as a benchmark for a mutual fund or a portfolio.