Home Blog What Does a Patient Care Technician Do?
Nursing April 20, 2017 Those who want to work in the medical profession have a number of career options besides being a doctor or nurse. One of those is Patient Care Technician or PCT – often also called a hospital or patient care assistants or orderlies.
What is PCT in medical terms pharmacology?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Figure 1: Immature Calcitonin
|A 3D cartoon of procalcitonin’s daughter compound, calcitonin
Procalcitonin ( PCT ) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin, the latter being involved with calcium homeostasis, It arises once preprocalcitonin is cleaved by endopeptidase, It was first identified by Leonard J. Deftos and Bernard A. Roos in the 1970s.
- It is composed of 116 amino acids and is produced by parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid and by the neuroendocrine cells of the lung and the intestine.
- The level of procalcitonin in the blood stream of healthy individuals is below the limit of detection (0.01 µg/L) of clinical assays.
- The level of procalcitonin rises in a response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, especially of bacterial origin.
It is therefore often classed as an acute phase reactant, The induction period for procalcitonin ranges from 4–12 hours with a half-life spanning anywhere from 22–35 hours. It does not rise significantly with viral or non-infectious inflammations. In the case of virus infections this is due to the fact that one of the cellular responses to a viral infection is to produce interferon gamma, which also inhibits the initial formation of procalcitonin.
What is PCT in microbiology?
Abstract – Procalcitonin (PCT) was first described as a sepsis-associated protein in 1993. PCT is increased in the blood at the time of infection by bacteria. Therefore, it is used as an auxiliary indicator of sepsis diagnosis. In addition, PCT is reduced quickly by antibiotics. And use as a stop or change marker is also expected. We have investigated the antimicrobial use and microbial testing of measurement patient and PCT running performance. Number of requests was 3,387 cases (inpatient 2,649 and outpatient 742 cases) for one year. It was subject to the 820 cases that had inspection request to July to October 2012. In 820 cases, 57 cases had exhibited a PCT >0.5 ng/ml and diagnosed with infectious diseases. In 57 cases, 44 cases (77%) were performed microbiology and blood culture. And only blood culture performed in 8 (14%), blood culture and microbiology is not performed for 5 cases (9%), In 21 (40%) cases of 52 cases performed the blood culture shown positive. Detecting bacteria accounted for more than half in 17 cases of Gram-negative bacilli. Also, it had exhibited a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in 18 cases. Antibiotics have been used in all cases regardless of implementation of the microbiology test. If sepsis is suspected, it is necessary for diagnosis is done correctly and quickly. Therefore, PCT has been suggested high usefulness by examining in the hospital. It is required that the reference identification and drug susceptibility results of the pathogenic bacterium combination of microbiology test and the PCT. We considered useful to PCT monitoring that as an indicator of antimicrobial agents change or shorten of antibiotic use period. Future, proactive use of clinical practice is expected.
How does PTC work?
PTC systems determine the precise location, direction and speed of trains, warn train operators of potential problems and safely bring the train to a stop if the operator does not act. Specifically, PTC technology is designed to prevent: Train-to-train collisions. Derailments caused by excessive speed.
What does PTC stand for in psychology?
Abbreviation for psychophysical tuning curve.
What does PTC stand for in training?
The Professional Training Course (PTC) Objective of the PTC The Probationers’ Training Course (PTC) imparts training to newly inducted Group-‘A’ Civil Servants of Accounts & Finance Services in the core areas of finance and accounts and public financial management.
- It equips officer trainees with requisite skills, knowledge and attitude to shoulder responsibility as public servants.
- It tries to promote all round personality development of the trainee officers as public service officers.
- Alongside, it also aims to develop a strong spirit of inter-service camaraderie and cooperation.
The Services included:
- Indian Audit & Accounts Service (IA&AS)
- Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)
- Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS)
- Indian Postal & Telecom Accounts and Finance Service (IP&TAFS)
- Indian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS)
- Indian Cost Accounts Service (ICoAS)
Background First batch of PTC commenced in January 1994. For more than two decades all the Probationers/Officer Trainees (OTs) spent 44 weeks on AJNIFM campus which, coupled with an eight week project, fetched them an AICTE approved diploma (Diploma in Public Financial Management).
|Subjects (Module – I)
|Public Financial Management
|Government Accounting System
|Data Analysis and Decision Tools
|Organisational & Individual Behaviour
|Subjects (Module – II)
|Economics, Business and Policy
|Cost and Management Accounting
|Data Analytics & Use of ICT in Government
|Public Policy, Good Governance and Sustainable Development
|Public Procurement and Contract Management, including introduction to GeM
Pedagogy The Course comprises of two Modules covering ten full credit papers of 40 sessions each and 2 non-credit Papers of 20 sessions each. Modern methods of teaching/learning are used for covering the syllabus. Pedagogy includes:
- Regular Class Room Sessions
- Presentations- Individual as well as group presentations by participants
- Case Studies
- Assignments Practical exercises, Quiz etc.
- Field visits and attachment for practical exposure.
Faculty The regular faculty of the Institute including Associated Faculties & Professor of Practice as well as serving and retired senior officers from various Departments and Ministries of Government of India are engaged for delivering lectures in PTC.
|Detail & Duration
|1 day visit to DoE, NB for interaction with Secretary (Expenditure)
|1 day visit to President’s House
|Visit to NGO/PSUs/CAPFs & Civil Police sensitization at BPR&D
|1 day PFMS attachment
|1 day visit to TRAI or PSU – Brief overview on transformation of the Telecom sector, role of regulatory bodies such as TRAI
|3 days PRIDE (earlier known as BPST)
|1 week attachment with NAAA Shimla for Audit Module
|1 week domestic attachment to Mumbai (RBI, SEBI, NISM and other Financial Institutions)
|3 days District Attachment with districts of Haryana State
|1 week International Attachment /or GIM Goa or /Any other institution of repute
Examination Examinations are conducted at the end of each Module. There is weightage of 50 percent for continuous evaluation and 50 percent for End term examination. The continuous evaluation includes quiz, class test, group presentations and assignments.
The participants have to score minimum 40% marks covering both end-term paper as well as continuous evaluation and overall pass marks of 50% (taking all papers together in each module). Activities The Officer Trainees are engaged with various activities during the training. The batch is divided into committees namely, cultural, sports, mess, discipline, eminent speaker, literary etc.
These committees ensures the conduct of cultural programmes, inaugural and farewell programme, sports meet, various competitions, publishing of ‘Reminiscence’, movie shows etc.
What does PCT stand for in stats?
QUESTION: What does ’95 Pct’ stand for in Report Statistics? RESOLUTION: Traverse uses percentiles when measuring observations. In this case, ’95 PCT’ stands for ‘ 95 Percentage ‘.
Where is PCT time?
Even though the Pacific time zone is only used in individual regions of three countries, it is known worldwide due to the large metropolitan areas on the American west coast. It runs along the Pacific coast from Vancouver in Canada to Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles, San Diego and Baja California in Mexico.
What is the difference between PCT and PST?
Abstract – A new procedure for separately isolating milligram quantities of rabbit renal proximal straight (PST) or convoluted (PCT) tubules is described, and the differential abilities of these segments to utilize glucose as a metabolic substrate are investigated.
- Separate dissection of the cortical cortices and the outer medullary stripe, followed by collagenase digestion and discontinuous Percoll centrifugation, provide enriched populations (greater than 98% pure) of PCT (37 mg) and PST (14 mg), respectively, per rabbit.
- The purity of PCT and PST fractions was quantitated morphologically and by comparing the enriched activity of the proximal tubular marker leucine aminopeptidase and deenriched activity of the distal marker hexokinase to previously published values reported from microdissection studies.
To investigate glucose-dependent metabolic differences, PCT and PST suspensions (1 mg/ml) were preincubated in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s-Ham’s F-12 medium for 1 h before being incubated for 30 min in buffer with or without glucose as the only available metabolic substrate.
- In glucose-containing buffer, PST segments maintained their oxygen consumption and ATP contents at levels significantly higher than PCT segments.
- These differential responses between PST and PCT were glucose-dependent because they were abolished when segments were incubated under glucose-free conditions.
Because responses in PCT were glucose-independent, these results suggest that PCT cannot utilize glucose to support oxidative metabolism, whereas PST segments can oxidatively metabolize this substrate. These differences in glucose utilization do not correlate with the distribution of glycolytic enzyme activities, suggesting that differential metabolic regulation of these enzymes may determine the ability of each segment to utilize glucose.
What is PCT in sepsis?
Bethel Shiferaw 1*, Ebisa Bekele 1, Krishan Kumar 2, Anthony Boutin 2 and Marianne Frieri 1,3 – 1 Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, USA 2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, USA 3 Divison of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, USA * Corresponding author: Bethel Shiferaw, Nassau University Medical Center, An affiliation of North Shore Long Island Jewish Health Care System, East Meadow, New York, USA, E-mail: [email protected] J Infect Dis Epidemiol, JIDE-2-006, (Volume 2, Issue 1), Review Article; ISSN: 2474-3658 Received: November 26, 2015 | Accepted: February 09, 2016 | Published: February 11, 2016 Citation: Shiferaw B, Bekele E, Kumar K, Boutin A, Frieri M (2016) The Role of Procalcitonin as a Biomarker in Sepsis.
- J Infect Dis Epidemiol 2:006.10.23937/2474-3658/1510006 Copyright: © 2016 Shiferaw B, et al.
- This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract Sepsis and its complications are one of the leading causes of mortality. Timely diagnosis and treatment is highly important in reducing the morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may aid in the early diagnosis of sepsis and therapeutic intervention.
- Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin and its primary trigger is infection.
- PCT is identified as part of the complex pro-inflammatory response of the innate immune system.
- PCT is widely reported as a useful biochemical marker to differentiate sepsis from other non-infectious causes.
Serum PCT levels are elevated in patients with bacterial infections. The diagnosis of infection in critically sick patients is challenging as the current biomarkers are non specific. Our review showed that PCT is a more accurate diagnostic parameter for sepsis and a better predictor of mortality.
PCT is a more reliable marker than other biomarkers including C-reactive protein, Interleukins and lactate levels. PCT has been proved to be superior biomarker, however its use still has to be interpreted in the context of clinical presentation. Further study on the role of PCT is needed for more effective and targeted approach in sepsis.
Keywords Procalcitonin, Biomarker, Sepsis Introduction Sepsis Sepsis is a systemic immune response to infection by microbial organisms. Sepsis is defined as the presence (probable or documented) of infection together with systemic manifestations of infection.
- The most common primary source of infection resulting in sepsis is the lungs, accounting for about half of all cases, followed by the abdomen, and the urinary tract.
- No definitive source is found in one third of cases,
- Sepsis encompasses a spectrum of illness that ranges from minor signs and symptoms through to organ dysfunction (severe sepsis) and shock.
Increasing severity correlates with increasing mortality, which rises from 25-30% for severe sepsis up to 40-70% for septic shock, Sepsis and its complications have a significant and increasing impact on health sector, and are one of the leading causes of mortality.
- The incidence of sepsis is increasing in all areas of the world.
- In general, sepsis occurs in approximately 2% of all hospitalizations in developed countries,
- Severe sepsis is a common, frequently fatal, and expensive condition.
- Epidemiological studies indicate an incidence of severe sepsis approximately 751,000 sepsis cases per year in the United States (3.0 cases per 1,000 population and 2.26 cases per 100 hospital discharges),
Mortality rate in sepsis remains high despite the current advances in medical science, technology and practice. Timely diagnosis and treatment is highly important in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis. At-times the diagnostic uncertainty still remains high despite the available clinical information.
Thus, a laboratory test with more specificity is essential. Serum biomarkers like procalcitonin may aid in the early diagnosis of sepsis and therapeutic intervention. Procalcitonin Procalcitonin (PCT) is a peptide precursor of the hormone calcitonin, the latter being involved with calcium homeostasis.
This 116-amino acid prohormone is comprised of three constituent peptides: a 57-amino acid sequence at the amino terminus (NProCT); the centrally positioned immature CT that contains a terminal glycine; and a 21-amino acid CT carboxyterminus peptide I (CCP-I),
- All these peptides are found in the serum of normal persons.
- In contrast to the short half-life of calcitonin (10 minutes), procalcitonin has a long half-life of (25-30 hours),
- PCT is produced by parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid and by the neuroendocrine cells of the lung and the intestine.
PCT originate from the calcitonin I (CALC-1) gene on chromosome 11. Expression of the PCT-producing calcitonin 1 (CALC-1) gene is increasing in multiple extrathyroid tissues throughout the body in the bacterial infections. In the absence of infection, the extrathyroidal transcription of CALC1 gene is suppressed,
- Therefore PCT detectable in the plasma during infection is not produced by C-cells of the thyroid rather by the neuroendocrine cells in the lungs or intestine.
- PCT becomes detectable within 2 to 4 hours after a triggering event and peaks by 12 to 24 hours.
- After reaching peak levels, the circulating procalcitonin concentration declines with a 50% plasma-disappearance rate of roughly 1-1½ days,
PCT belongs to a different class of molecules, called “hormokines,” given the hormonal origin of the mature protein and the inflammation-related functions of its propeptides, It may follow either a classical hormonal expression or, alternatively, a cytokine-like expression pathway.
- The production of hormokines is mediated by as yet unknown factors and may be induced either directly via microbial toxins or indirectly via a humoral or cell-mediated host response,
- Procalcitonin and Pathogenesis of Sepsis Cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis.
- Macrophages phagocytose bacteria and produce a range of proinflammatory cytokines, which initiate the innate immune system’s response to the bacterial pathogen.
This result in the production of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-6. The surge of proinflammatory cytokines during the innate immune response is a clinically visible and widely studied aspect of the pathophysiology of sepsis, As the paradigm of sepsis pathogenesis has evolved over time and as different therapeutic approaches to sepsis have been tried, different biomarkers have been used for diagnosis of sepsis and monitoring of treatment,
- TNF, IL-1β and IL-6, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), were all investigated as potential biomarkers.
- In the 1990s, investigators discovered that the levels of PCT were elevated in patients with bacterial infection, and it emerged as another potential biomarker,
- Increased plasma PCT was suggested to be added to the updated definition of sepsis in 2003, as one of the diagnostic criteria for sepsis,
The primary pathophysiological trigger for elevated level of PCT is infection. Iinvestigations identified PCT as part of the complex pro-inflammatory response of the innate immune system, A marked increase in serum PCT often indicates an exacerbation of the disease, and a decreasing level is a sign of improvement.
- During Sepsis, there is an increase in CALC-1 gene expression which causes a release of PCT and, more importantly, their levels persist for relatively long periods of time and correlate with sepsis severity and mortality.
- However, researchers have not determined the exact role that PCT plays in the pathogenesis of sepsis, further pathophysiological studies recommended regarding the biological role of calcitonin precursors during sepsis,
A recent experiment showed that PCT is a potent amplifier of the inflammatory cascade. It has shown that it induces pro-inflammatory like effects on leukocytes (increased the expression of surface markers on neutrophils and lymphocytes), increases leukocyte-derived cytokines and also augments nitric oxide (increases level correlates with severity of inflammation),
- Advance researches that are designed in clarifying the role of PCT in sepsis would aid in better understanding the pathogenesis of sepsis.
- The PCT test is relatively new, but its utilization is increasing.
- Multiple studies have shown that it has promise in helping to evaluate the risk of developing sepsis.
Procalcitonin as a Diagnosis Marker for Sepsis A number of the inflammatory markers, such as leukocyte cell count, CRP, and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, or IL-6), have been applied in the diagnosis of inflammation and infection, but their lack of specificity has generated a continued interest to develop more specific clinical laboratory tests,
PCT is widely reported as a useful biochemical marker to differentiate sepsis from other non-infectious causes. The PCT test has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in conjunction with other laboratory findings and clinical assessments to assist in the risk assessment of critically sick people for progression to severe sepsis and septic shock.
Serum PCT levels are elevated in patients with bacterial infections, but are below the detection limit in healthy individuals and in patients with viral infections. This indicates that PCT level is useful for the diagnosis of systemic bacterial infections,
PCT secretion reflects the severity of the inflammatory insult, with higher levels associated with more severe disease and declining levels with resolution of illness. Normal reference value is 2.0 ng/mL are highly suggestive of systemic bacterial infection/sepsis or severe localized bacterial infection.
Although increased PCT levels may not always be related to systemic bacterial infection, The diagnosis of infection in critically sick patients is challenging because traditional markers of infection are often non-specific and misleading. PCT was found to be a more accurate diagnostic parameter for sepsis, and therefore daily determinations of PCT may be helpful in the follow up of critically sick patients,
A systemic review and meta-analysis done on 30 studies (2013) revealed that PCT has a mean sensitivity of 0.77 (95% CI 0.72-0.81) and specificity of 0.79 (95% CI 0.74-0.84), The authors concluded that PCT is a helpful marker for diagnosis of sepsis in critically sick patients. However, it cannot be recommended as the single definitive test for sepsis diagnosis but rather it must be interpreted in context with information from clinical data.
The application of procalcitonin has to be considered along with clinical diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock. A description of the specific clinical diagnostic criteria is used. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can be readily diagnosed at the bedside by the presence of at least two of the following four signs: body temperature variations (hyperthermia or hypothermia), tachycardia, tachypnea, and variations in white blood cell count (leukocytosis or leukopenia).
- The clinical diagnosis of sepsis requires the presence of SIRS resulting from presumed or known site of infection.
- Septic shock, a subset of sepsis, can be clinically diagnosed as a persistently low blood pressure despite adequate fluid resuscitation.
- A literature review on the usefulness of PCT test among patients with chronic renal insufficiency found that PCT can be a useful test in identifying systemic infections among patients with renal dysfunction,
It is often challenging to distinguish between bacterial infections and disease-flares in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, because of similar clinical presentation. A high PCT level is an excellent marker of bacterial infection in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, even when they are being treated with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents,
- Procalcitonin as a Prognosis Marker for Sepsis A comprehensive knowledge of the biology, advantages and limitations of biomarkers is essential before applying them as a routine clinical tool for prognostic value.
- Elevated level of PCT at admission to the ICU was found to be a better predictor of mortality that helps in the stratification of patients and to identify patients at higher risk of adverse outcomes,
Many studies have demonstrated that serum PCT levels are increased in patients with sepsis, and the high levels of PCT correlate with the outcome of the disease. PCT can be used for differential diagnosis, prognosis, and follow-up of critically sick patients,
Serum PCT levels have been noted to increase with increasing severity of sepsis. In addition, a rising PCT level might be used as an indicator that an infectious process is not under control and that better source control is required, A large cohort study (2006) done among critical care patients with daily PCT measurements showed that a high maximum PCT level and a PCT increase for 1 day are both independent predictors of 90 day mortality,
The study also revealed that the relative risk for mortality increased with every day rise of the PCT value. PCT levels should be determined serially, it is used for monitoring the host response to the infection and the antibiotic treatment. Few studies suggest that if PCT levels decrease more than 30% of the initial value after the first 24 hours of antibacterial treatment, the infection can be considered under control and the treatment is favorable,
- A systemic review of these trials revealed that measurement of PCT levels for antibiotic decisions in patients with sepsis appears to reduce antibiotic exposure without worsening the mortality rate,
- Procalcitonin and other Bio-Markers of Sepsis Biomarkers should provide a more reliable tool in ascertaining the presence of a relevant bacterial infection, its severity and treatment response.
An ideal biomarker should allow, with high diagnostic accuracy, for an early and rapid recognition of sepsis. PCT is a biomarker that fulfills many of these requirements, especially in comparison to other commonly used biomarkers, and that has demonstrated superior diagnostic accuracy for sepsis,
PCT is found to be superior to CRP in terms of accuracy at identifying sepsis and assessing the severity of sepsis, PCT was a more reliable marker in the diagnosis of sepsis than other biomarkers including TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8, Serum PCT concentration is more sensitive and specific marker of sepsis as compared with serum IL-6 and lactate levels,
There is still a need for new sepsis biomarkers that can aid in therapeutic decision making and add information about screening, diagnosis, risk stratification, and monitoring of the response to therapy. Novel approaches to sepsis promise to transform sepsis from a physiologic syndrome into a group of distinct biochemical disorders and help in the development of better diagnostic tools and effective adjunctive sepsis therapies,
Procalcitonin, Sepsis and Emergency Room Biomarkers may play an important role in the management of patients with sepsis in emergency rooms. PCT is considered a relatively innovative and highly specific biomarker for the diagnosis of clinically relevant bacterial infections and sepsis; therefore it is increasingly recognized as an important diagnostic tool in clinical practice of emergency room.
In addition, a multimarker panel approach performed by rapid and accurate assays (PCT being one of the important biomarkers) is useful for emergency physicians to promptly identify sepsis thus managing through better diagnosis, treatment and risk stratification.
- Therefore PCT could be a safe and effective tool to guide clinical and therapeutic decisions in emergency rooms.
- An observational study conducted in Europe and Asia involving 340 patients who were enrolled from the emergency department investigated the diagnostic and prognostic utilities of PCT,
- The study evidently showed that PCT concentration-based sepsis diagnosis is more reliable than the clinical diagnosis.
Therefore assessment of patients with sepsis in emergency room should include appropriate use of PCT for improved diagnosis and management of patients. Procalcitonin and Sepsis Treatment PCT provides important information in early stages of sepsis as well as during antimicrobial treatment.
In fact, PCT can be useful for antimicrobial stewardship and its utilization may safely lead to significant reduction of unnecessary antimicrobial therapy, A systemic review and meta-analysis (2013) on PCT-guided antibiotic therapy indicated that PCT guidance can safely reduce antibiotic usage when used to discontinue antibiotic therapy in critically sick patients,
PCT-protocols to guide antibiotic treatment in severe infections are known to be effective. These protocols are based on daily measurement of PCT and clinical signs & symptoms of infection. Implementation of a PCT-protocol in a real-life clinical setting was also associated with a reduced duration of antibiotic therapy in septic patients without compromising clinical or economical outcomes,
- Conclusion PCT has been proved to be superior biomarker, however its use still has to be interpreted in the context of clinical presentation.
- This short review identified the association of PCT and sepsis.
- Additional knowledge on the role of PCT might be valuable for more effective and targeted treatment in sepsis.
More research is needed to further explore PCT as a possible gold standard biomarker in sepsis. References
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What are PTC issues?
How can PTC delay a train? What do we mean when we say a train is delayed by PTC issues? Most Metra riders are aware that all railroads, including Metra, are required by federal law to install and implement Positive Train Control (PTC) by the end of 2020.
- Metra and its freight partners, particularly the BNSF Railway and the Union Pacific, are currently in the midst of rolling out PTC across our rail lines to meet the federal deadline.
- PTC is a GPS-based safety technology system that monitors a train’s movements in real-time and will stop a train to prevent train-to-train collisions, over-speed derailments, and unauthorized train movements through work zones or any other restricted section of track.
For a video explaining PTC, click, Trains across the Metra system are now operating with PTC, and as a result, PTC is now being cited in our service alerts as a cause of some delays. How can PTC delay a train? In general there are four types of issues that could cause a PTC delay.
- They are: software, hardware, wayside communications and human error.
- Software issues have been a common cause of Metra’s PTC-related delays.
- It can be as simple as a message conflict during the initialization process before a train run.
- The software that runs PTC is extremely complex and must be adapted to every unique aspect of our railroad.
Metra lines where PTC is operating are either in operating demonstration or testing modes and fine-tuning the software is part of this process. Hardware issues are self-explanatory and occur if one of the numerous components of the PTC onboard computer system fails.
The wayside communications system monitors railroad track signals, switches, and track circuits and communicates the alignments or indications of track equipment to the onboard system to allow a train to move through a section of track. A failure in this communication link will stop a train because the PTC system is not receiving this data.
Human error issues have also been a common cause of Metra’s PTC-related delays. This type of error has occurred across the rail industry as PTC has been implemented, but the number of human errors have been shown to decline quickly as users gain experience and familiarity with the system.
Human error issues can range from mistyping data during the train’s initialization process to the engineer disregarding or not responding quickly enough the PTC system’s instructions. In the second example, the PTC system is functioning as designed when it stops the train. A PTC issue sometimes requires that the engineer reset the onboard equipment, and that can require about 10 minutes to complete.
PTC’s initialization requirements are the primary reason that we’ve been modifying schedules on train lines to increase the time between a set of equipment’s next run and allow for PTC initialization. As Metra and its freight partners continue to roll out PTC on all 11 lines, Metra expects to need to fix software issues as PTC moves from a test environment to real world application.
What is a PTC relay?
Checking the PTC Relay – An Important Chapter of Fridge Repairs Refrigerators, no matter of what brand they may be of are bound to develop snags sooner and later and why not? They run 24×7. Thus, even if you have a refrigerator from Fisher and Paykel Fridge, it’s bound to develop snags. And when they do you need to hire techies who are specialists who are,
We at Commercial Fridge Repairs pride to state that we are home to some of these best technicians whom you can opt for, to have the snag repaired most feasibly. Now, speaking about fridge repairs, one of the most important chapters is checking the Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) Relay. PTC relay is a specific starting device, which works for the compressor of the refrigerators.
The principle function of the PTC relay is to provide power to the start winding for a brief period to help to trigger the motor of the cooling compressor. Now when the refrigerator stops generating cool air, it may be because of a malfunctioning PTC relay, which is also called the Start Relay.
What class of drug is PCT?
Piracetam is a nootropic medicine. It works by increasing the activity of a chemical messenger (acetylcholine) which improves communication between the nerve cells.
What is the normal range of PCT?
PCT is normally less than 0.05 ng/ml (equivalent to less than 0.05 ug/L) in healthy individuals.