Population health management refers to the process of improving clinical health outcomes of a defined group of individuals through improved care coordination and patient engagement supported by appropriate financial and care models.
What is the meaning of population management?
Population management is an approach to planning the health care needs of all your patients by shifting the focus from individual patient visits to the entire population.
How do we monitor the health of the population?
Introduction – The history of health, health concepts, and scientific developments has been discussed in previous chapters. Measuring the health of populations is fundamental to improving their health status. Traditionally, public health deals with the health of populations, while the New Public Health deals with the health of both individuals and population groups.
This chapter discusses how measurements are used to describe, analyze, prescribe, and justify interventions to protect and improve the health of populations and of individuals, and to monitor the outcomes of interventions. The public health professional working with individual and community health needs to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to measure and interpret the factors that relate to disease and health, both in the individual and in population groups.
Demography and epidemiology are the basis of health information systems, but the social and basic medical sciences are also vitally important in understanding public health, providing an expanding array of health status indicators and measures of the impact of interventions.
Demography deals with the recording of the characteristics and trends of a population over time. The field has broadened to include social demography, which has a broader focus on economic, social, cultural, and biological factors, an important aspect of the New Public Health because of the vital role that risk factors, which are deeply affected by social conditions, play in health protection and disease prevention.
Epidemiology measures the distribution, causes, control, and outcomes of disease in population groups. It provides the basic tools for quantification of the extent of disease, its patterns of change, and associated risk factors. Epidemiology also provides basic information needed for planning, evaluating, and managing health services.
Other disciplines provide additional information and insights needed for community and national health assessment. These include the social sciences (sociology, psychology, anthropology, and economics), as well as clinical fields such as pediatrics and geriatrics, and basic sciences such as microbiology, immunology, and genetics.
This chapter is an introduction to epidemiology and health information systems intended to familiarize the student with basic terms, concepts, and methods. The scope of this text does not lend itself to detailed discussion of biostatistics and epidemiological methods, but instead focuses on the basic ideas and their relevance to the New Public Health.
What are the main method of population management?
Things to remember –
- Measures of population management are birth spacing, marriage at proper age, condition of women and education, female status upgrading and measures of contraception.
- Pills, form tablets, vaginal cream, and femindom are temporary family planning methods.
- Vasectomy, minilap and laparoscopy are permanent family planning.
- It includes every relationship which established among the people.
- There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
- It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
- common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.
What is the advantage of population management?
What are the benefits of Population Health Management (PHM)? /sites/default/files/images/special_page_revamp_logo/qa-logo_73_2.png The benefits of Population Health Management include better health outcomes with reduced care gaps and real-time monitoring. The following are the key advantages:
Improved quality of care while reducing costs Improved care for patients with chronic and costly conditions by monitoring Real-time access and closed gaps in care along with patient-centric view Better clinical outcomes
: What are the benefits of Population Health Management (PHM)?
What are the methods of monitoring populations?
Wild animal populations may be monitored for a variety of reasons: biological interest or research purposes (eg bird migration); game management (eg deer); the wild animal may be considered an actual or potential pest (eg rodents, birds); the species may be endangered or threatened and the population is being monitored to assess its progress or recovery; the biological diversity or ‘ecological health’ status of an area may be required; or perhaps it is desirous to know the effects of human management actions, land-use practices, or alternative activities on one or more species (Witmer, 2005).
- To monitor a wild animal population information about the animal(s) of interest first needs to be collected.
- This is commonly achieved by methods such as: directly observing animals and their behaviour in situ; looking for signs of animals (eg tracks, dung); radar; thermal cameras; capture/mark/release of animals; or attaching or implanting monitoring devices (eg collars, leg bands, back packs or data loggers).
Depending on the method of data collection the impact on the welfare of animals may be greater or less, both for the individual being monitored, and the population as a whole. For example, to enable field biologists to monitor wild penguin populations, flipper bands may be used to mark individual penguins within a penguin colony.
Although this practice is important for gathering population data, the welfare of individual banded penguins can be compromised when traditional metal bands are used and they may contribute to population decline over time. Metal bands cause increased drag whilst swimming (which in-turn can reduce swim speed and dive depth and impact on feeding), can snag on vegetation (causing injury), and may result in increased feather wear (leading to increased heat loss, an important consideration for birds that live in Antarctic conditions).
Banded penguins have been shown to have a 16% higher mortality rate and produce 39% less chicks (Saraux et al, 2011). When an identification or monitoring method affects animal welfare detrimentally, it is important to consider alternatives and in recognition of Dr Peter Barham’s and Bristol Zoo’s work on the welfare benefits of a new type of silicon flipper band which addressed many of the concerns of metal bands UFAW awarded them a UFAW Wild Animal Welfare Award,
- The silicon flipper band, designed by Dr Barham of Bristol University, and manufactured and tested by Bristol Zoo, was a simple and innovative design which was found to cause less feather wear and drag, and was also easier to read.
- Additionally, the flexible nature of rubber allowed the bands to expand if necessary, eg when the flipper expands during moult.
Another project which seeks to improve the welfare of wild animals fitted with external tags and supported by UFAW, is being carried out by Rory Wilson and his team who are investigating tag-use in free-ranging birds. Current guidelines state that devices should not exceed 3% of bird body mass – the aim being that the device does not detrimentally interfere with bird behaviour or welfare.
However, according to Rory Wilson and his team this measurement is overly simplistic and does not take into account bird biology and lifestyle. The aim of their project is to develop a framework for assessing presumed physical tag detriment on birds (e.g. skin pressure, drag, predicted metabolic rate differences, moment arm effects) using physical principles which could be applied once the tag properties and the study species were known.
A resultant generated ‘physical detriment matrix’ could then be used to give a more realistic assessment of detrimental tag effects. Internal devices can also be important for monitoring animals and UFAW supported Mr James Macgregor’s work investigating platypus monitoring techniques (Murdoch University, Australia). In Australia wild platypuses are monitored in an effort to ensure their health and welfare, and to protect the population.
- However, current long-term monitoring methods involve either repeated capture or the application of relatively large tracking devices, both of which may adversely affect individual platypus welfare.
- Mr Macgregor wished to refine monitoring techniques through the use of an in-stream microchip reader which could monitor platypus movements and survival remotely and required only one capture of each platypus to implant the microchip.
The study showed that in-stream microchips were an effective method for detecting microchipped platypus and Dr Macgregor believes that in-stream microchip readers will assist greatly in gathering new data and improving platypus welfare. The full results of Macgregor’s work were published in the Journal Pacific Conservation Biology, Live-trapping is another method which may be used during field studies. Live traps are designed to catch and hold the animal(s) of interest without harming them until the required details can be recorded by the field researcher. However, live-traps can compromise the welfare of animals, and some species will suffer more than others. However, sometimes simple and practical solutions can be found to such problems as discovered by Ms Randy Do (an Animal Welfare Student Scholar), who sought to address the high mortality rate when shrews are live-trapped (reported to be between 40 and 90%).
Ms Do found that supplementing live-trap baits with mealworms reduced mortality rates by 49% and 64% for two types of vulnerable shrew and subsequently published her work in the Journal of Mammalogy (4). Ms Do is one of over 350 young students that UFAW has supported via the UFAW Animal Welfare Student Scholarship scheme (previously the UFAW Vacation Scholarship Awards).
This annual award, established in 1983, hopes to encourage and enable promising young students to develop their interests in animal welfare science by supporting them in carrying out their own research projects.
What is the best indicator of population health?
Measures of mortality, life expectancy, and premature death –
|Box 1. Examples of Population Health Outcome Metrics Based on Mortality or Life Expectancy|
|Crude mortality rate|
|Age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMR)|
|Age-specific mortality rate|
|Neonatal (<28 d)|
|Infant (<1 y) (infant deaths per 1,000 live births)|
|Under 5 y|
|Adult (15-60 y)|
|Other characteristic-specific mortality rates|
|State- or county-specific|
|Condition-specific mortality rates and similar measures|
|Disease-specific mortality rate|
|Injury-specific mortality rate|
|Leading causes of death|
|Smoking-attributable mortality (number of deaths)|
|Maternal mortality ratio|
|Occupational class-specific mortality rate|
|Life expectancy at birth|
|Life expectancy at age 65 y|
|Years of potential life lost|
|Premature mortality rate|
|Summary measures of population health|
|Health-adjusted life expectancy at birth (y)|
|Quality-adjusted life expectancy|
|Years of healthy life|
|Healthy life years|
|Disability-adjusted life years|
|Quality-adjusted life years|
|Geographic variation in AAMR among counties in a state (standard deviation of county AAMR/state AAMR)|
|Mortality rate stratified by sex, ethnicity, income, education level, social class, or wealth|
|Life expectancy stratified by sex, ethnicity, income, education level, social class, or wealth|
People and societies value life and health, although the relative value placed on long life versus well-being during life varies. Mortality and life expectancy are 2 basic measures of population health (Box 1). The number of deaths that occur in a population during a period of time (usually 1 year) divided by the size of the population is the population’s crude mortality.
- Because age is such a strong predictor of death and the age distributions of members of different populations vary, a population’s mortality rate is commonly adjusted by using a standard age distribution to produce an age-adjusted mortality rate.
- The age-adjusted mortality rate allows comparison of mortality across different populations.
One may also calculate mortality rate for a group in a population on the basis of a specific characteristic, such as age, sex, or geographic area, to yield a characteristic-specific mortality rate. Another method of assessing the effect of mortality on a population is to calculate the life expectancy of its members.
- Typically, this is calculated as the life expectancy at birth, although it may be calculated as the remaining life expectancy for any given age.
- Measures of premature death, including years of potential life lost and the premature mortality rate, quantify mortality among people younger than a particular age, typically 65 or 75 years.
Although these measures provide information about mortality and longevity, they provide no information about the contribution of specific diseases, injuries, and underlying conditions (for example, water quality, poverty, social isolation, and diet) to death, for which actions might be taken to prolong life.
What are population monitoring techniques?
Last updated Save as PDF
Page ID 71513 The primary aim of population monitoring is to detect changes in the environment, population size, and species distribution over time. Such monitoring efforts frequently focus on a particular area or a population of concern, but it can also target more common but sensitive species, such as butterflies and macroinvertebrates, which can function as indicator species to assess ecosystem condition.
What are the 5 principles of a population approach?
Abstract – Traditionally, medical education, research, and practice have focused on the care of the individual but an increasing emphasis on the care of populations has raised awareness among academic medical centers, integrated delivery systems, and managed care organizations of the value of embracing population-based health principles.
What are the two methods of population control?
Natural methods: Natural birth control methods include total and continuous abstinence and the rhythm method. Surgical methods: Men and women could be surgically operated on to prevent fertilization. For women, the process is called tubal ligation, and for men, it is called vasectomy.
Why is it necessary to manage population growth?
» Population growth magnifies the harmful impact of economic processes on the environment; yet the rise in per capita income has been more important than population growth in driving increased production and consumption.
What is the best way to measure population?
The best way to measure the size of a population is to count all the individuals in that popula- tion. When determining the population sizes of trees or other relatively immobile organisms, this method is practical. If the organism is mobile, however, such as a fish, counting every individual would be difficult.
What are the four factors of tracking population?
The four factors that determine population size are birth rate, death rate, emigration, and immigration. Birth rate: It has a positive influence on population growth.
What is the best way to measure population growth?
Population Growth Rate It is calculated by dividing the number of people added to a population in a year (Natural Increase + Net In-Migration) by the population size at the start of the year.
What are the different types of population indicators?
Population statistics include indicators that measure the population size, sex ratio, density and dependency ratio while vital statistics include indicators such as birth rate, death rate, and natural growth rate, life expectancy at birth, mortality and fertility rates.
What is population growth management?
Growth management – Wikipedia
| This article has multiple issues. Please help or discuss these issues on the, ()
Growth management, in the United States, is a set of techniques used by the government to ensure that as the population grows that there are services available to meet their demands. Growth management goes beyond traditional land use planning, zoning and subdivision controls in both the characteristics of development influenced and the scope of government powers used.
What is population risk management?
It is the process of assigning a risk status to patients, then using this information to direct care and improve overall health outcomes. Population health management requires practices to consider patients as both individuals and as members of a larger community or population.
What is population vs sample data management?
Published on May 14, 2020 by Pritha Bhandari, Revised on December 5, 2022. A population is the entire group that you want to draw conclusions about. A sample is the specific group that you will collect data from. The size of the sample is always less than the total size of the population. In research, a population doesn’t always refer to people.
|Advertisements for IT jobs in the Netherlands||The top 50 search results for advertisements for IT jobs in the Netherlands on May 1, 2020|
|Songs from the Eurovision Song Contest||Winning songs from the Eurovision Song Contest that were performed in English|
|Undergraduate students in the Netherlands||300 undergraduate students from three Dutch universities who volunteer for your psychology research study|
|All countries of the world||Countries with published data available on birth rates and GDP since 2000|
What population stands for?
A population is the complete set group of individuals, whether that group comprises a nation or a group of people with a common characteristic. In statistics, a population is the pool of individuals from which a statistical sample is drawn for a study.