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What Is The Role Of The Ethics Committee In Healthcare?

What Is The Role Of The Ethics Committee In Healthcare
Why does the medical center have an Ethics Committee? – The Ethics Committee gives advice on moral questions in clinical care, educates clinical staff and the public on issues in medical ethics, and develops policies related to patient care.

What is the main role of an Ethics Committee?

Ethics committees review research proposals involving human participants and their data to ensure that they agree with local and international ethical guidelines. They also monitor studies once they begin and—if necessary—may take part in follow-up actions after the end of the research.

What are the 3 functions of the Ethics Committee?

The Purpose and Functions of a Facility Ethics Committee – The purpose of a facility ethics committee is to provide support to patients, staff, and family members in addressing ethical issues encountered in long-term care. The three primary functions commonly cited for an ethics committee are education, policy development and review, and case analysis.15,16,17 Each of these functions are important in the contribution of an ethics committee to end-of-life decision-making.

  • Self-education: The ethics committee should educate itself by readings, discussions and presentations concerning end-of-life issues. Resources may be from internal expertise or from outside consultation from those with bioethics expertise. Topics can include, but not be limited to, the state legal statutes and mechanisms available for advance care planning and DNR decisions; surrogacy mechanisms; classic end-of-life cases (e.g., Quinlan, Cruzan, Wanglie, and Schiavo); principles of bioethics and models of ethical reasoning; and any existing institutional policies regarding end-of-life care and decision-making. In addition, the concept of trajectories of decline of frail, older adults can be presented to educate non-clinical as well as clinical members of the committee about patterns of decline which can be seen near the end of life and which may affect clinical decision-making.18 The role of palliative and hospice care in long-term care should be part of the educational material. An orientation manual including the above topics may be developed which will be helpful to new members of the committee. It may be helpful to review the orientation manual periodically to discuss areas of interest.
  • Education of other staff and residents: The ethics committee can develop in-service programs to educate other staff on ethical issues such as advance directives and hospice care. Talks given to residents can be an opportunity to increase completion of advance directives and enhance understanding of available choices for care planning, palliative care, and hospice.
  • Education of family members: In formal presentations to residents, or individual encounters in patient care, or in consultative case analysis, the involvement of family members provides an opportunity to educate them about end-of-life care options.

Policy Review and Development

  • The facility ethics committee should assist in the development of end-of-life care policies to ensure the maximal degree of autonomy possible, and the highest degree of respect for individual patients.
  • Facility policies regarding advance care planning should comply with the Patient Self-Determination Act which requires that health care facilities inform patients upon admission of their right to express advance wishes for their medical care.
  • The facility ethics committee should be familiar with facility policies regarding end-of-life care. This may be especially relevant in faith-based institutions. Facility policies regarding end-of-life care may be discussed as deemed appropriate or necessary by the committee.
  • When the facility ethics committee assesses any facility policy regarding end-oflife care, it should do so with the priority of respect for the personhood and autonomy of the individual patient.

Case Review

  • The facility ethics committee should be available for case consultation upon request from any staff member, patient, or family member, concerning ethical aspects of care. End-of-life decision-making issues will be a primary focus of most long-term care facility ethics committees.
  • Selection of cases for consultation should be optional. Recommendations coming from an ethics committee in a nursing facility should also be considered optional. The role of a facility ethics committee is advisory rather than prescriptive.
  • All case discussions must strictly guard confidentiality and maintain anonymity.
  • When possible, cases should be presented by the individual who raised the ethical concern. A nonmember may present a case as a guest. Cases should be reviewed in advance by the chairperson or convener of the committee for appropriateness and for clarification of the pertinent ethical questions.
  • Case presentations should describe the facts of the case. This is best done in narrative form. Case facts include a) biographical facts—tell the narrative of the patient’s life story briefly to set the context of the current situation; b) clinical facts—describe patient’s condition, the clinical trajectory, the pertinent medical diagnoses, symptoms, prognosis, and current and proposed treatment plans; c) psychosocial facts—what is the patient’s decision-making status? What advance care planning is in place? What are the patient’s expressed wishes, if known? If decision-making capacity is impaired, who is the authorized proxy for medical care decisions? What do we know about the proxy’s wishes for the patient’s care? Who are other key stakeholders in the decision process?
  • Case presentations should describe the values of the patient and others involved in the case which are pertinent to the issue at hand.
  • Case presentations should seek to identify the loyalties or possible conflicting agendas of any of the key stakeholders in the situation.
  • A central ethical question should be formulated to guide the discussion.Discussion should clarify the pertinent ethical questions, identify the relevant ethical principles and tension among ethical principles, explore the range of options for care in the face of the approach to the end of life, and offer constructive suggestions to the case presenter for next steps. The committee does not “make the decision”; rather, it seeks to clarify the questions and identify additional considerations for thought, leading to reasonable options for care.

The American Society for Bioethics and Humanities has identified core competencies for health care case consultations. Committee members should collectively have skills and abilities in defining and analyzing the nature of ethical conflict in a particular case, facilitation of meetings, building moral consensus, respectful and empathetic listening and communication with and among all persons involved in a case, eliciting and representing moral views, and addressing relational barriers to communication 21 (cited in Powers17, 186-87).

What is the importance of ethics committees in hospitals?

Hospital ethics committees are a valuable resource for patients and their families, as well as healthcare providers and other professionals, to resolve difficult ethical dilemmas that may arise through the course of treatment.

What are the roles and responsibilities of Ethics Committee in clinical research?

Ethics Committee Amendments to Drugs and Cosmetics Rules were published vide G.S.R.72 (E) dated 08.02.2013 specifying the requirements and guidelines for registration of Ethics Committee and re-registration under Rule 122DD to the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945.

For the purpose of the Rule 122DD, an Ethics Committee is a committee comprising of medical, scientific, non-medical and nonscientific members, whose responsibility is to ensure the protection of the rights, safety and well-being of human subjects involved in a clinical trial and it shall be responsible for reviewing and approving the protocol, the suitability of the investigators, facilities, methods and adequacy of information to be used for obtaining and documenting informed consent of the study subjects and adequacy of confidentiality safeguards.

In the case of any serious adverse event occurring to the clinical trial subjects during the clinical trial, the Ethics Committee shall analyze and forward its opinion as per procedure specified under APPENDIX XII of Schedule Y. The Ethics Committee shall allow inspectors or officials authorized by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization to enter its premises to inspect any record, data or any document related to clinical trial and provide adequate replies to any query raised by such inspectors or officials, as the case may be in relation to the conduct of clinical trial.

If the Ethics Committee fails to comply with any of the conditions of registration, the Licensing Authority may, after giving an opportunity to show cause why such an order should not be passed, by an order in writing stating the reasons therefor, suspend or cancel the registration of the Ethics Committee for such period as considered necessary.

: Ethics Committee

What is the most important role of the ethics review committee?

Its mandate is to ensure WHO only supports research of the highest ethical standards.

What are the 5 functions of ethics?

Reviewing these ethical principles which are at the foundation of the guidelines often helps to clarify the issues involved in a given situation. The five principles, autonomy, justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and fidelity are each absolute truths in and of themselves.

What is the common rule of the Ethics Committee?

The Common Rule is a 1981 rule of ethics regarding biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects in the United States. The Common Rule is the baseline standard of ethics by which any government-funded research in the U.S. is held. Nearly all U.S. academic institutions hold their researchers to these statements of rights regardless of funding.

See also:  How To Reduce Asymmetric Information In Healthcare?

What are the four functions of ethics?

Four Roles of Ethical Theory in Clinical Ethics Consultation When clinical ethics committee members discuss a complex ethical dilemma, what use do they have for normative ethical theories? Members without training in ethical theory may still contribute to a pointed and nuanced analysis.

  1. Nonetheless, the knowledge and use of ethical theories can play four important roles: aiding in the initial awareness and identification of the moral challenges, assisting in the analysis and argumentation, contributing to a sound process and dialogue, and inspiring an attitude of reflexivity.
  2. These four roles of ethical theory in clinical ethics consultation are described and their significance highlighted, while an example case is used as an illustration throughout.

: Four Roles of Ethical Theory in Clinical Ethics Consultation

Why do we need Ethics Committee approval?

All research involving human participants and/or human tissues requires ethical approval by the University’s Research Ethics Sub-Committee (RESC) or one of the Faculty Research Ethics Committees (FRECs). Ethical research is honest, rigorous, transparent, respectful and protects participants.

  1. Participants are a valuable part of the research process and not merely a means of accessing data.
  2. Ethical review provides protection for participants, and also helps to protect the researcher.
  3. By obtaining ethical approval the researcher is demonstrating that they have adhered to the accepted ethical standards of a genuine research study.

Participants have the right to know who has access to their data and what is being done with it. If ethical approval has not been obtained, the individual researcher bears personal responsibility for any claims that may be made. Research funders will generally only fund research that has ethical approval, and many publishers will not accept for publication results of research that was not ethically approved.

Why do we need code of ethics and Ethics Committee?

Key Takeaways –

A code of ethics sets out an organization’s ethical guidelines and best practices to follow for honesty, integrity, and professionalism.For members of an organization, violating the code of ethics can result in sanctions including termination.In some industries, including banking and finance, specific laws govern business conduct. In others, a code of ethics may be voluntarily adopted.The main types of codes of ethics include a compliance-based code of ethics, a value-based code of ethics, and a code of ethics among professionals.A focus on climate change has become an integral part of companies’ codes of ethics, detailing their commitment to sustainability.

What is the role of an Ethics Committee in long term care?

Role of a Clinical Ethics Committee in Residential Aged Long-Term Care Settings: A Systematic Review

, December 2020, Pages 1852-1861.e8 To conduct a systematic review of literature examining the establishment and operation of clinical ethical committees (CECs) in long-term care (LTC). LTC recipients/family or staff. Five databases (Ovid Medline, Ovid Cochrane Library, Ovid PsycINFO, Ovid EMBASE, and CINAHL via EbscoHost) were systematically searched from their inception to May 8, 2020.

The initial search was conducted on August 22, 2017, and updated on May 8, 2020, to identify peer-reviewed studies, commentaries, or editorials. The quality of studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Thirty-three articles were identified for inclusion, of which 13 were primary studies.

Most articles were set in the United States. The purpose of establishing a CEC in LTC was typically to assist in dealing with ethical issues and improve the quality of care. The articles described the roles of CECs to include prospective case consultation, case review, policy development, and ethics education.

  1. Articles rarely reported whether the CEC was required by or enshrined in law.
  2. Membership of CECs was between 4 and 20 members and most commonly included nursing staff, physicians, and directors/administrators.
  3. The rationale behind the membership was rarely described.
  4. For case consultation, articles described that CECs were typically convened upon referral.

The resident issues which a CEC could address included end-of-life care decisions, autonomy/self-determination, and medical treatment decisions. The staff issues addressed by CECs included medical treatment decisions, end-of-life care decisions, and decision-making issues.

  1. The decision-making process followed by CECs varied.
  2. The outcome of a CEC meeting was typically a recommendation, whereas the implementation of CEC recommendations and decisions were rarely reported.
  3. This systematic review identifies how CECs operate in the LTC setting.
  4. CECs have the potential to provide valuable support in addressing complex ethical issues in LTC; however, empirical research is required to determine their efficacy in the LTC setting.

A systematic search and analysis of the scientific research literature was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 30 (Figure 1). PRISMA is a widely accepted protocol that details the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

The protocol for this review was not registered. Articles were included in the review according to the following criteria: the population was comprised of LTC recipients and their The initial search yielded 4326 records, of which 145 articles were selected for full text review. Of 145 articles, 31 met our inclusion criteria and 1 additional study was identified from the bibliographic review.

The remaining 114 articles were excluded. The update search yielded 1504 records of which 7 articles were selected for full text review. Of 7 articles, 1 met our inclusion criteria, the remaining 6 were excluded. In total, 5830 records were identified, of which 152 articles were Thirty-three articles met our inclusion criteria, including only 13 primary empirical studies, which used a mixture of methods.

  • J.E. Ibrahim et al.
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  • Anonymous
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    • Alcohol is one of the most widely available psychoactive substances globally. Many accept the risks associated with alcohol consumption for reasons such as social engagement and feelings of pleasure. Alcohol consumption in a nursing home (NH) setting highlights the moral and logistical challenges of balancing the need for a safe living and working environment with the dignity of risk (DoR) and personal autonomy of residents. This analysis explores public health, human rights, and legal frameworks in their approach to a NH resident’s choice to drink alcohol. Key issues under the public health framework include the medical risks associated with alcohol consumption, whether residents with impaired cognitive functioning have the capacity to make a decision about alcohol consumption, and the practical and ethical implications of supplying alcohol to residents. Under a legal framework, NHs must consider the legal imperative to respect residents’ rights, the possibility of liability in negligence, duties owed to employees, the existence of substitute decision-makers, and liquor licensing laws. Fundamental considerations under the human rights framework include the damaging psychological effects of risk-avoidance and the importance of inclusive risk assessment processes. Alcohol policies should incorporate elements from all 3 frameworks. There is limited data publicly available about alcohol policies in NHs. Further research is needed to establish current practice and to evaluate the merits and disadvantages of different policies. Establishing inclusive and thorough decision-making processes is key to achieving better consumer-directed care.
    • Short-term rehospitalization and mortality are common events in older patients after a pneumonia admission, yet little knowledge exists on how to identify the patients at risk of these events. This knowledge is needed to ensure that health care attention is given to those with the highest needs. We therefore aimed to identify factors of importance for short-term rehospitalization and mortality in older patients after admission for pneumonia.
      • Population-based cohort study.
      • The Danish nationwide registries.
      • In total, 246,245 individuals aged 65-99 years who experienced 298,564 admissions for pneumonia from 2000 to 2016.

      The explored factors in patients were demographic characteristics, health-seeking behavior, comorbidity, and medication use. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for 30-day rehospitalization and 30-day mortality with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of the 298,564 admissions for pneumonia, 23.0% were rehospitalized and 8.1% died within 30 days of follow-up. Most of the investigated factors were significantly associated with these 2 outcomes. The HRs for rehospitalization ranged from 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.85) for old vs young age to 4.29 (95% CI 4.05-4.54) for many vs no prior admissions, whereas the HRs for mortality ranged from 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91) for any vs no practical home care to 5.47 (95% CI 5.08-5.88) for old vs young age. Number of comorbidities, medications, and prior contacts to the health care system were associated with higher risk of both rehospitalization and mortality in a dose-response manner. This study identified several potential factors of importance for short-term rehospitalization and mortality in older patients discharged after pneumonia. This knowledge can help physicians identify the patients with the highest need of care after admission for pneumonia, thus enabling efficient discharge planning and high-quality provision of care in primary care settings.

    • Older adults living in nursing homes are the most vulnerable group of the COVID-19 pandemic. There are many difficulties in isolating residents and limiting the spread in this setting. We have developed a simple algorithm with a traffic light format for resident classification and sectorization within nursing homes, based on basic diagnostic tests, surveillance of symptoms onset, and close contact monitoring. We have implemented the algorithm in several centers with good data on adherence. Suggestions for implementation and evaluation are discussed.
    • Pneumonia is a frequent cause of hospitalization among nursing home (NH) residents, but little information is available as to how clinical presentation and other characteristics relate to hospitalization, and the differential use of antimicrobials based on hospitalization status. This study examined how hospitalized and nonhospitalized NH residents with pneumonia differ.
      1. Data from a 2-year prospective study of residents who participated in a randomized controlled trial.
      2. All residents from 14 NHs in North Carolina followed for pneumonia over a 2-year period.
      3. Clinical features, antimicrobial treatment, hospitalization, and demographic data on residents with a pneumonia diagnosis were abstracted from charts; NH information was obtained from NH administrators.

      A total of 509 pneumonia episodes were reported for 395 unique residents; the incidence was not higher in the winter months, and 28% were hospitalized. The likelihood of hospitalization did not differ by clinical characteristics except that residents with a respiratory rate >25 breaths per minute were more likely to be hospitalized. Being on hospice and not having dementia (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.2) also related to increased likelihood of hospitalization. Fluoroquinolone (usually levofloxacin) monotherapy was the most common treatment (54%) in both settings, and ceftriaxone monotherapy varied by hospitalization status (7% of hospitalized vs 16% treated on-site). Approximately 36% of nonhospitalized residents received antimicrobials for more than 7 days. Respiratory rate is associated with hospitalization but was not documented for more than a quarter of residents, suggesting the clinical benefit of more consistently conducting this assessment. Differential hospitalization rates for persons with dementia and on hospice suggest that care is being tailored to individuals’ wishes, but this assumption merits study, as does use of fluoroquinolones (due to side effects) and treatment duration (due to potential contribution to antibiotic resistance).

    • Post-acute care reform creates an impetus for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) to reevaluate care delivery to promote value. One method to contain costs is to deliver rehabilitation with multiple individuals and 1 therapist. Our preliminary investigation proposed to identify clinical prescribing patterns for multiparticipant therapy and evaluate the impact on functional change. The study design was observational with prospective data collection. Data were collected on 458 individuals admitted to 1 SNF. Therapists administered the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and gait speed at admission and discharge. Unadjusted binomial logistic regression models analyzed the odds ratio for receiving multiparticipant therapy. Linear regression models analyzed the impact of multiparticipant therapy on functional outcomes. The odds of receiving multiparticipant therapy were greater with private pay or managed care compared with Medicare A or a Medicare priority diagnosis (OR 1.333; 95% CI 1.176–1.511). The odds of not receiving multiparticipant therapy were greater with pain that affects activity and sleep (OR 0.836; 95% CI 0.710–0.984; OR 0.809; 95% CI 0.662–0.989). The amount of multiparticipant therapy sessions did not affect adjusted functional change in the SPPB or gait speed ( P >,195). Irrespective of care delivery mode, individuals demonstrated levels of function predictive of adverse events at discharge. Payer source, diagnosis, and presence of significant pain may play a role in selection for multiparticipant therapy, with no differences in functional outcomes related to rehabilitation delivery. Importantly, individuals discharge from the SNF at alarmingly low levels of function, prompting the need to assess SNF rehabilitation and transition to the community, regardless of care delivery mode. Further research will inform an evidence-based decision guide regarding different modes and quality of SNF rehabilitation care delivery.

    : Role of a Clinical Ethics Committee in Residential Aged Long-Term Care Settings: A Systematic Review

    What are the two types of ethical committee?

    Introduction – Bioethics is a discipline dealing with ethical issues in biomedical and biological research. With the ongoing advance of science and technology, the concerns related to safety and security of human subjects have increased tremendously. This requires that biomedical research and health care activities, as well as proposed scientific activities, must be reviewed by independent authorities according to national, supranational and international legislation.

    This required the establishment of ethical committees (ECs) to ensure that research and health care practices are carried out in an ethically acceptable manner. Ethics Committees (ECs) are independent, multidisciplinary, non-profit bodies. They are constituted to evaluate clinical experimentation and research involving human subjects and routine patient care from an ethical and scientific point of view, in order to ensure that these abide by the ethical standards set by national and international guidelines ( 1 ).

    These committees are deployed to analyse the ethical concerns related to patient care or research involving human subjects ( 2 ). Depending upon their specific roles, the ethical committees are of two types: Research Ethics Committees (RECs), and Clinical Ethics Committees (CECs) ( 3, 4 ).

    What are the 4 pillars of medical ethics?

    Ethical Guidance for Doctors While pondering what it means to be a good or immoral person, a philosopher may conclude there are not always right or wrong answers to questions of ethics., nonetheless, there are well-established ethical frameworks which must be followed to ensure patient safety and maintain trust in the medical profession.

    This article will provide you with a brief overview of the medical code of ethics and NHS ethics guidelines. The 4 Pillars of Medical Ethics Respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice – referred to as the four pillars of medical ethics – are likely the first ethical principles you may have come across before or during your medical education.

    This is for good reason; these principles form the basis of clinical judgement and decision-making when confronted with moral problems in the medical field. Nevertheless, whilst they offer a common moral code relevant to ethical issues in a healthcare setting, they do not provide specific rules or guidelines which doctors can refer to.

    • Good Medical Practice
    • This is the overarching ethical guidance for doctors in the UK, outlining core ethical values and attributes. It is split into four domains:
    • 1) Knowledge, skills, and behaviours
    • 2) Safety and quality
    • 3) Communication, partnership, and teamwork
    • 4) Maintain trust

    It is important all licensed doctors are well-versed in what Good Medical Practice entails for their medical care. This document also sets out what standards patients, colleagues and managers should expect of doctors. Furthermore, Good Medical Practice forms the foundation of and should always be referred to when thinking about your annual appraisals and revalidation.

    1. Use the minimum necessary personal information. Use anonymised information if it is practicable to do so and if it will serve the purpose.
    2. Manage and protect information. Make sure any personal information you hold or control is effectively protected at all times against improper access, disclosure or loss.
    3. Be aware of your responsibilities. Develop and maintain an understanding of information governance that is appropriate to your role.
    4. Comply with the law. Be satisfied that you are handling personal information lawfully.
    5. Share relevant information for direct care in line with the principles in this guidance unless the patient has objected.
    6. Ask for explicit consent to disclose identifiable information about patients for purposes other than their care or local clinical audit, unless the disclosure is required by law or can be justified in the public interest.
    7. Tell patients about disclosures of personal information you make that they would not reasonably expect, or check they have received information about such disclosures, unless that is not practicable or would undermine the purpose of the disclosure. Keep a record of your decisions to disclose, or not to disclose, information.
    8. Support patients to access their information. Respect, and help patients exercise, their legal rights to be informed about how their information will be used and to have access to, or copies of, their health records.

    There are, however, certain circumstance where you may disclose patient information without breaching confidentiality:

    1. The patient consents, whether implicitly or explicitly for the sake of their own care or for local clinical audit, or explicitly for other purposes.
    2. The patient has given their explicit consent to disclosure for other purposes.
    3. The disclosure is of overall benefit4 to a patient who lacks the capacity to consent.
    4. The disclosure is required by law, or the disclosure is permitted or has been approved under a statutory process that sets aside the common law duty of confidentiality.
    5. The disclosure can be justified in the interest.

    Additional supporting pieces on confidentiality, designed for specific purposes – such as disclosing information about fitness to drive, serious communicable diseases, or gunshot/knife wounds – are readily available on the GMC page. Decision-Making and Consent Good Medical Practice promotes a holistic and patient-centred approach in healthcare.

    1. All patients have the right to be involved in decisions about their treatment and care and be supported to make informed decisions if they are able.
    2. Decision making is an ongoing process focused on meaningful dialogue: the exchange of relevant information specific to the individual patient.
    3. All patients have the right to be listened to, and to be given the information they need to make a decision and the time and support they need to understand it.
    4. Doctors must try to find out what matters to patients so they can share relevant information about the benefits and harms of proposed options and reasonable alternatives, including the option to take no action.
    5. Doctors must start from the presumption that all adult patients have capacity to make decisions about their treatment and care. A patient can only be judged to lack capacity to make a specific decision at a specific time, and only after assessment in line with legal requirements.
    6. The choice of treatment or care for patients who lack capacity must be of overall benefit to them, and decisions should be made in consultation with those who are close to them or advocating for them.
    7. Patients whose right to consent is affected by law should be supported to be involved in the decision-making process, and to exercise choice if possible.

    The GMC has also set out guidance specific to bioethics, i.e. seeking consent to research, which you may wish to look into. Leadership and Management Part of a doctor’s job description is leading teams and supervising colleagues for the purpose of providing safe care to patients. Therefore, they are required to adhere to the following, no matter what role they are in:

    1. Engage with colleagues to maintain and improve the safety and quality of patient care.
    2. Contribute to discussions and decisions about improving the quality of services and outcomes.
    3. Raise and act on concerns about patient safety.
    4. Demonstrate effective team working and leadership.
    5. Promote a working environment free from unfair discrimination, bullying and harassment, bearing in mind that colleagues and patients come from diverse backgrounds.
    6. Contribute to teaching and training doctors and other healthcare professionals, including by acting as a positive role model.
    7. Use resources efficiently for the benefit of patients and the public.

    Maintaining Professionalism As a doctor you are part of the professional culture present in healthcare. Developing professionalism is a process; from an early stage in your medical education, you are consistently required to demonstrate attributes, values, and behaviours expected of a physician until you come to think, act, and feel like a physician.

    Doctors regularly face a variety of situation where they must remain professional, which is why the GMC offers a range of guidance to help you maintain appropriate boundaries, including on social media. Children and Young People Doctors must consider additional ethical and legal factors when dealing with children.

    The GMC, the BMA, as well as the Medical Defence Unit (MDU) have developed guides to help you explore and act in the best interest of a child or young person. Comprehensive guidance for all doctors on 0 to 18 years old patients can be found on the GMC’s webpage.

    Good Practice in Prescribing As you are responsible for your signed prescription, it is in your best interest to ensure you are prescribing safely, particularly when prescribing controlled drugs. Do not prescribe for yourself or friends and family. Additional guidance can be found on the GMC webpage. End-of-Life Care This is a very sensitive and complex subject and you should consult the detailed guidance on provided by the GMC.

    Overall, you must be aware of the Human Rights Act 1998 and its main provisions, as your decisions are likely to engage the basic rights and principles set out in the Act. In accordance with the pillar of justice, you must give patients who are approaching the end of their life the same quality of care as all other patients.

    You must treat patients and those close to them with dignity, respect and compassion, especially when they are facing difficult situations and decisions about care. You must respect their privacy and right to confidentiality. Candour and Raising Concerns All doctors have a duty to raise concerns where they believe patient safety or care is being compromised as well as encourage a culture in which staff can raise concerns openly and safely.

    Concerns may stem from numerous sources, such as patients’ complaints or colleagues’ concerns. Upon receiving such information, you are obliged by medical law to act promptly and professionally by putting the matter right (if that is possible), investigating and dealing with the concern locally, or referring the matter to senior management or the relevant regulatory authority.

    Ethical Guidance. General Medical Council. Available from:

    Ethics. British Medical Association. Available from: 3. Gillon R. Medical ethics: four principles plus attention to scope. BMJ 1994;309:184–184. doi:10.1136/bmj.309.6948.184 : Ethical Guidance for Doctors

    What are the 7 features of ethics work?

    Everyday ethics in professional life : social work as ethics work. Banks, Sarah (2016) ‘Everyday ethics in professional life : social work as ethics work.’, Ethics and social welfare., 10 (1). pp.35-52. This article outlines and develops the concept of ‘ethics work’ in social work practice.

    It takes as its starting point a situated account of ethics as embedded in everyday practice: ‘everyday ethics’. This is contrasted with ‘textbook ethics’, which focuses on outlining general ethical principles, presenting ethical dilemmas and offering normative ethical frameworks (including decision-making models).

    ‘Ethics work’ is a more descriptive account of ethics that refers to the effort people put into seeing ethically salient aspects of situations, developing themselves as good practitioners, working out the right course of action and justifying who they are and what they have done.

    Item Type: Article
    Full text: (AM) Accepted Manuscript (487Kb)
    Status: Peer-reviewed
    Publisher Web site:
    Publisher statement: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis Group in Ethics and Social Welfare on 14/01/2016, available online at:
    Date accepted: 11 November 2015
    Date deposited: 23 March 2016
    Date of first online publication: 14 January 2016
    Date first made open access: 14 January 2017


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    Everyday ethics in professional life : social work as ethics work.

    What are the 3 three elements of ethics explain?

    The goal of scientific research is to advance knowledge and society. However, research also poses many ethical concerns. Three basic ethical principles are outlined in The Belmont Report to serve as a guide for research involving human subjects. These are respect for persons, beneficence and justice.

    Basic Ethical Principles The expression “basic ethical principles” refers to those general judgments that serve as a basic justification for the many particular ethical prescriptions and evaluations of human actions. Three basic principles, among those generally accepted in our cultural tradition, are particularly relevant to the ethics of research involving human subjects: the principles of respect of persons, beneficence and justice.1.

    Respect for Persons – Respect for persons incorporates two ethical convictions: first, that individuals should be treated as autonomous agents, and second, that persons with diminished autonomy are entitled to protection.2. Beneficence – Persons are treated in an ethical manner not only by respecting their decisions and protecting them from harm, but also by making efforts to secure their well-being.

    The term “beneficence” is often understood to cover acts of kindness or charity that go beyond strict obligation. In this document, beneficence is understood in a stronger sense, as an obligation. Two general rules have been formulated as complementary expressions of beneficent actions in this sense: (1) do not harm and (2) maximize possible benefits and minimize possible harms.3.

    Justice – The concepts of justice are commonly understood as (1) to each person an equal share, (2) to each person according to individual need, (3) to each person according to individual effort, (4) to each person according to societal contribution, and (5) to each person according to merit.