What Field Is Pharmacy In?
- Tony Dean
Clinical research in the medical field Pharmacy is the clinical health science that integrates medical science with chemistry. It is tasked with the discovery, manufacturing, disposal, safe and effective use, and regulation of various pharmaceuticals and drugs. Pharmacy is the clinical health science that links medical science with chemistry.
Is pharmacy in the medical field?
MEDICAL DISCIPLINES include general medicine, dental medicine, podiatric medicine, optometric medicine, chiropractic medicine, pharmacy, and veterinary medicine.
What is the field of pharmacist?
First place on our list of the top 12 careers in pharmacy is the community pharmacist. Do you enjoy working with other people a lot? You might benefit from using a community pharmacy! One of the most typical career paths for new pharmacists is to work in a community pharmacy, which is also one of the most visible.
It is necessary for a pharmacist to have a comprehensive understanding of the functions of each and every one of these products, including the ways in which they may be helpful and the ways in which they may cause possible damage. The communication skills of a pharmacist need to be on par with their technical understanding in order to be considered qualified.2.
Hospital pharmacist Pharmacists working in hospitals are considered to be professionals in the field of drugs. Working in a hospital pharmacy affords one the chance to participate actively in the care of patients while also being part of a collaborative and supportive team.
You will collaborate closely with the medical and nursing personnel in order to provide the highest quality care possible to hospital patients. In addition to assisting patients with all aspects of their medication, you will provide advice to medical professionals including the choice of medication, the dosage, and the method of administration.
Pharmacists are not only responsible for filling prescriptions, but they are also engaged in the process of procuring drugs and evaluating their overall quality.3. Pharmacist who specializes in primary care The role of the practicing pharmacist is one that has only been around for a short while as a career option.
A practicing pharmacist doesn’t distribute drugs. They are instead employed within a general medical practice, where they provide direct assistance to both the physicians and the patients of that practice. They are typically able to devote more time and attention to individual patients than a busy community pharmacist is able to, therefore delivering high-quality treatment and specialized services such as helping people quit smoking.
Pharmacists who are interested in working more closely with physicians and providing their patients with a more comprehensive level of treatment outside of a hospital environment may find this career path to be an excellent choice.4. Scholar or research assistant After receiving one’s first undergraduate degree, following a career in research and/or academia is a viable option for those who take pleasure in working with ideas and who are unsure whether or not they are ready to give up reading just yet.
Graduates of pharmacy programs have the opportunity to do research not only in the practice of pharmacy but also in a wide range of other fields, such as pharmacotherapy, drug discovery, toxicology, clinical sciences, public health, and many more.5. The pharmaceutical industry and ongoing clinical research Pharmacists working in this field lend their expertise to the administration and conduct of clinical tests on new medications.
In this capacity, you will be responsible for arranging studies from a medical point of view and ensuring that the medications that are used in the trials are imported, kept, accounted for, compounded, distributed, and utilized in accordance to certain procedures.
It may also entail counseling participants and caregivers, as well as teaching medical and nursing professionals. Liaison with hospital staff may also be required.6. Locum pharmacist Have a degree in pharmacy and are willing to travel! It’s a good idea to consider being a locum pharmacist if you like having some leeway in your schedule.
The availability of locum tenens jobs can be attributed to a variety of factors, including maternity leaves, employee attrition, staff vacations, and relief situations, such as when a regular pharmacist calls in ill. It’s possible that this will present a chance to experiment with various working settings and methods.
- Consider working as a locum pharmacist if you have an exploratory personality, value flexibility in your work environment, and would like the opportunity to see the world.7.
- The functions of the government and non-profit organizations Pharmacists possess the information, skills, and experience necessary to perform advisory positions for both the government and non-government institutions such as health funds and private hospitals.
These jobs may be beneficial to both types of organizations. Access to pharmaceuticals, electronic health care, and public health are only few of the areas that the government may concentrate on.8. a pharmacist serving in the military Although it might not be the first career choice that comes to mind, the Department of National Defence actually hires certified pharmacists to fill positions in the armed forces, including the army, the navy, and the air force.
- This exciting profession may require a pharmacist to be assigned with other allied health personnel to operate on board military ships, or they may be deployed with their unit into remote parts of Canada and internationally.
- Both of these experiences are sure to be memorable ones.9.
- Pharmacist specializing on mental health It is the job of hospital pharmacists who specialize in mental health to provide clinical pharmacy services to the adult mental health in-patient wards as well as the psychiatric evaluation and planning departments of the institution.
This is a highly specialized field of work that calls for excellent cooperation abilities as well as up-to-date medication knowledge in the field of psychiatric drug therapy. The management of the supply of antipsychotic drugs for patients with mental health conditions who are treated in government facilities, outpatient clinics, community centers, and specialty hospitals is the primary emphasis of this effort.10.
Pharmacist for pregnant women and infants The field of women’s and infants’ pharmacy, which offers clinical pharmacy services to pregnancy and neonatal patients, is at the other end of the spectrum from the field of care for the elderly. The majority of pharmacists begin their careers with some level of experience working in a hospital pharmacy.11.
Pain educator, program director or consultant Both acute and chronic pain are attractive fields to do research on. Pain management is an ever-evolving subject that covers many different facets of treatment and is not limited to pharmacology and the administration of painkillers.
Pharmacists work closely with patients who are experiencing pain to assist them in the management of their drugs and the coordination of any other types of therapy.12. Officer in charge of drug safety You are in charge of pharmacovigilance activities if you are a drug safety officer. This includes receiving and processing reports of adverse drug occurrences and engaging in frequent conciliation with health authorities.
And a few more options available for selection. Information on drugs or pharmaceuticals Acute care, emergency care, or urgent care medicine Consultant pharmacist Management & mentorship Stewardship of antimicrobial agents Pharmacy specialist in senior care Entrepreneur Associate in Regulatory Affairs (RA) Complex care coordinator
Is pharmacy a branch of science?
The creation, distribution, and appropriate use of medicinal substances are the primary focuses of the field of pharmacy, which is a subfield of the health sciences. A pharmacist is a type of medical expert who is authorized to combine prescriptions, in addition to preparing, selling, and disposing of medications and other chemical substances.
What field is medicine?
The study of health and wellness is referred to as medicine. It consists of medical assistants, physicians, and a variety of other specialties. It addresses the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, as well as medical research and a great deal of additional elements of health.
- The purpose of medicine is to enhance and continue to preserve one’s health and well-being.
- The term “allopathic medicine” is occasionally used to refer to conventional contemporary medicine.
- It may require the use of pharmaceuticals or surgical procedures and is frequently accompanied by psychotherapy and changes in one’s way of life.
Acupuncture, homeopathy, traditional Chinese medicine, herbal medicine, art therapy, and a great many more types of medicine are examples of alternative and complementary forms of medical treatment.
Which field is best in medical?
The Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) is consistently ranked as India’s most popular medical degree.
What is medical pharmacy?
The medical benefit, or what we prefer to call “medical pharmacy,” covers the cost of specialty pharmaceuticals that are provided by healthcare professionals (usually in the office of a physician, an outpatient facility of a hospital, or through home infusion). These expensive injectable medications are one of the primary factors that push up the cost of specialized
What type of science is pharmacy?
In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt put his signature on the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which is the law that continues to regulate the distribution of pharmaceuticals to this day. This historic piece of legislation has been justly lauded for its significance and innovation in the realm of drug distribution regulation.
- On the other hand, the Act resulted in a dramatic reduction in the obligations that pharmacists were expected to do.
- Before the passage of this Act, only a very limited number of medications could only be purchased with a valid prescription.
- The Pure Food and Drug Law of 1906 and the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914 each placed some limitations on the distribution and possession of specific narcotics and particularly harmful medications.
The vast majority of other medications might be purchased from pharmacies on the customer’s behalf. In the event that a patient did not have a prescription from their attending physician, it was the responsibility of the pharmacist to determine what medication the individual should take.
- Following the tragic events that occurred in 1937 with Elixir Sulfanilamide, Congress passed the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which included a significant labeling clause.
- A list of all of the drug’s active components as well as its recommended course of treatment had to be included on the packaging of any medication that was sold to the general public as a result of this law.
An exception to this labeling rule was established for medications that were labeled to be supplied only upon presentation of a valid prescription from a licensed medical practitioner. It was up to the drug maker to decide whether a particular medication would be classified as a “legend” medicine or a drug that required a prescription.
- This caused a great deal of consternation among consumers in the market.
- It is possible for one pharmaceutical firm to determine that their sulfa medicine is only to be given with a doctor’s prescription, while another pharmaceutical company may choose to label the identical drug as being available for sale without a prescription.
The Food and Drug Administration made slow but steady progress in gaining control of the process of deciding which pharmaceuticals should be available exclusively with a doctor’s prescription. These efforts reached their zenith in the early 1950s with the passage of the Durham-Humphrey Amendments.
- These revisions put an end to the pharmacists’ duty for selecting medicine for their patients and finalized the restriction on that responsibility.
- Pharmacists have been reduced to the role of simple merchants, doing tasks such as counting and pouring, licking and sticking.
- It is important to note that both Congressman Durham and Senator Humphrey, who were the driving forces behind this legislation, had prior experience in the pharmaceutical industry.
The function of pharmacists in the 1950s had an effect on the role that the academy played at the time. Because the medications were the primary focus of pharmacy practice, educational institutions centered their curricula around drug-related topics. During this time period, a greater emphasis was placed on the fundamental sciences in the education of pharmacists.
It was decided that pharmacology, pharmaceutics, and medicinal chemistry would serve as the foundational scientific disciplines. Even if it did not focus on patients, the field of pharmacy was nonetheless firmly grounded in scientific research. Additionally, throughout this time period, the academic pursuit of research took on a greater level of significance.
The top colleges of pharmacy are institutions that have developed robust research programs and have risen to the top. It was an endeavor to downplay the significance of apprenticeship training and transform the pharmacy degree into a genuine scientific degree that led to the focus being placed on science as the foundation for education.
- However, there were those people who were discontent with the way things were.
- It was during this period that the doctor of pharmacy degree began its ascent to prominence.
- A practice component was an essential part of the PharmD, and the schools and colleges of pharmacy were the ones who were responsible for overseeing students’ practical learning.
By the 1960s, there was a significant effort, especially within academic pharmacy, to recover some of the duties regarding the decision-making process about drugs. The second half of the 20th century saw a rise in the influence of this particular trend.
The field of academic pharmacy realized that concentrating just on the medication was no longer adequate. In order for pharmacists to be considered genuine health care professionals, they need to direct the majority of their attention toward the patients they serve. During the latter half of the 20th century, the academy took on a bigger responsibility for hands-on learning and worked on broadening the role that pharmacists play as part of the health care team.
During the late 1960s, when I was a student of pharmacy, I remember being quite excited about the possibility that pharmacists might one day become actual drug specialists and have duties for therapeutic selection, consulting, and other such things. During my time as a student, I had no idea how far the profession would progress to where it is today.
- One of the unintended consequences of the rise in popularity of experiential learning has been a concurrent decline in the quantity and quality of instruction in fundamental scientific disciplines.
- In the latter part of the 20th century, many colleges and schools of pharmacy discontinued their pharmacognosy programs.
However, after the implementation of the DSHEA in 1994, an explosion in the use of herbal medicine and dietary supplements has left our pharmacy students with little background and understanding of natural product chemistry. According to information that I’ve gathered from a variety of different sources, a significant proportion of the recently established educational institutions, such as colleges and schools, do not have faculty members who specialize in medicinal chemistry or pharmaceutics.
- It has been brought to my attention by members of the teaching staff at a number of well-known educational institutions that the number of available educational opportunities in the fields of chemistry and pharmaceutics is decreasing.
- The fact that our kids are not being sufficiently prepared in the basic sciences is a source of widespread alarm among those who study the field of basic science.
This phenomena would be detrimental to the practice of patient-oriented pharmacy if it were to be confirmed. One of the characteristics of evidence-based medicine is that the practitioner should not just accept the conventional knowledge of his or her present mentor.
This is one of the hallmarks of evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine is a style of medicine that bases appropriate medical treatment on a hypothesis developed via the application of the scientific process, which involves doing research based on observations and reading relevant literature.1 Education in the fundamental sciences and a grasp of the fundamental scientific concepts are both required for this procedure.
To ensure that students are receiving the appropriate level of scientific education to be able to practice evidence-based medicine in the 21st century, I would like to encourage all schools of pharmacy and colleges of pharmacy to carefully review the basic science courses that they make available to their students.
What type of science is pharmaceutical?
What exactly is meant by the term “Pharmaceutical Science?” In general, the term “Pharmaceutical Science” refers to a subfield within the profession of “Pharmacy.” Comparing Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science to Aviation Engineering and Piloting is like comparing Aviation Engineers and Pilots.
- The basis of new medication research and development is the primary emphasis of the field of pharmaceutical science.
- The study of how medications function, including their efficacy and safety, as well as their effects on the body and the role they play in the treatment and prevention of illness, is known as pharmaceutical science.
People who are truly captivated by the process of creating, synthesizing, testing, and profiling new medications that may be utilized in the field of medicine may find that the discipline of Pharmaceutical Science, which is a very hands-on area of study, appeals to them.
What category is pharmaceutical sciences?
The term “pharmaceutical science” refers to a group of sub-disciplines within the wider scientific discipline of pharmacology. These sub-disciplines include drug discovery and design; drug delivery; drug action; clinical sciences; drug analysis; pharmacoeconomics; and regulatory affairs.
- A second type of pharmaceutical science is known as pharmaceutical chemistry.
- According to the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, the term “pharmaceutical science” refers to a multifaceted field that incorporates a variety of subfields.
- These are the following: Evaluation and standards for the pharmaceutical industry, particularly quality control In the realm of research and development, biotechnology Research in clinical pharmacology as well as translational studies The research and development of new drugs Design and development of various formulations Science and engineering in manufacturing, particularly the production of medical devices Drug metabolism, in addition to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics Pharmacy as well as the study of biopharmaceutics Science of regulation, with an emphasis on assuring both quality and safety The process of creating a new medication may be very lengthy and demanding in terms of both time and effort invested.
As was just discussed, the process of developing a new medicine involves a great deal of variety. The first step is discovery, the second is development, and the third is manufacture. All of these are subfields that are included in the field of pharmaceutical science.
Finding new chemicals, particularly ones that can cure illnesses, is an essential part of the drug discovery process. In the field of drug development, having a solid foundation in chemistry is essential. Researchers in the pharmaceutical industry may look at hundreds of different chemical compounds before settling on one that satisfies both their requirements for being effective and safe for humans to consume.
This procedure consists of a lot of different steps, one of which is taking into account how proteins change these chemicals. Typically, pharmaceutical experts limit their attention in their work to a single facet of the process of developing new drugs.
This could include the development of treatments that make use of either natural or synthetic components, the investigation of novel applications for currently available pharmaceuticals in the treatment of diseases for which they were not originally intended, or the identification of the formulation of specific compounds that proves to be the most effective.
The process of generating a novel medicine and bringing that drug to market is a multi-step one, and drug development is just one of the many steps involved in that process. The field of pharmaceutical science encompasses every facet of the medication development process.
- Researchers in the pharmaceutical industry contribute to the discovery and development of novel medication therapies, which save lives and enhance people’s overall quality of life.
- Working in a laboratory or for a government agency such as the National Institutes of Health or the Food and Drug Administration can both provide you with opportunity to make a difference in the world.
What About People Who Work in Pharmacies? The field of pharmaceutical science is distinct from the practice of pharmacy in the sense that pharmacists are the ones who assess how medications are being used, administer medications, and consult with patients.
- On the other side, pharmaceutical scientists work mostly in research to find, create, and test new medications rather than directly with customers as pharmacists do.
- They are more likely to be found behind the scenes than in front of it.
- Pharmaceutical scientists spend the most of their time in a laboratory, where they work on a variety of chemical compounds while also investigating the ways in which these substances interact with the human body.
Being knowledgeable in pharmaceutical chemistry is essential for a career in the pharmaceutical science field. For those interested in pursuing a successful career in pharmaceutical science, earning a master’s degree in pharmaceutical chemistry gives the additional knowledge that is required.
With the online Master of Science in Pharmaceutical Chemistry program offered by the University of Florida, students have the option to get their degree in as little as two years. The program features lectures from renowned faculty members, interactive discussion, and educational modules. If you want to enhance your career in the pharmaceutical sciences, getting a higher degree will provide you better compensation and more chances.
Students at the University of Florida have the option of enrolling in one or two classes without working toward a degree, or they can seek a graduate certificate in pharmaceutical chemistry and then transfer the credits they earned toward a master’s degree at a later date.
Is pharmacy a STEM field?
F-1 international students who graduate with a degree in a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) field are eligible for a total of three years of work authorization, whereas F-1 international students who graduate with a degree in any other field are eligible for only one year of work authorization.
Nevertheless, STEM may be understood in a number of ways, and the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE) has its own list determining which degrees qualify as STEM fields. Because it is not always obvious whether or not a degree meets the criteria for a STEM degree, F-1 students need to give careful consideration to the majors they select in order to ensure that their degrees meet the criteria for STEM degrees.
USICE (the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement) maintains a list of all degree programs that qualify as STEM and confer upon graduates the ability to apply for an additional two years of work authorization under the OPT (Optional Practical Training) program.
Therefore, graduates who majored in STEM fields are eligible to apply for a total of three years of work authorisation, but graduates who majored in any other field are only eligible to apply for one year of work authorization following graduation. Checking the list at https://www.ice.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Document/2016/stem-list.pdf will let you to determine whether or not a certain major qualifies you for the additional two years of work permission.
The list is quite extensive and begins with Agroecology and sustainable Agriculture. It then moves on to include many fields such as Animation, Interactive Technology, Video Graphics and Special Effects, Artificial Intelligence, many IT and computer science majors, many Engineering majors, Architectural Drafting, CAD, Biopsychology, Behavioral Sciences, many fields in Psychology, a wide variety of Veterinary majors, Management Science, as well as a great number of other fields of study.
- The fact that the majority of the fields in the healthcare industry are not included on the list, with a few notable exceptions, may come as a surprise to some people.
- For instance, nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, dentistry, speech language pathology, chiropractic, and other healthcare occupations are not included on the list of degrees that focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
A medical doctor, sometimes known as an MD, is not on the list of STEM careers. Therefore, despite the fact that it is abundantly clear that these degrees are connected to science and technology, they are not included on the STEM list. As a consequence, graduates who wish to pursue careers in the healthcare industry are only eligible for one year of optional practical training (OPT), and they will not be able to obtain the additional two years of STEM extension.
- The biological sciences and the non-clinical branches of the medical and biological sciences are what make up the STEM field of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, which is part of the STEM curriculum.
- The fields of medicine and nursing are excluded from this classification.
- So, for instance, a degree in Radiation Biology, which has the corresponding CIP code of 26.2209 and is the study of the effects of radiation on living organisms and biological systems, is considered to be a STEM degree.
On the other hand, a degree in Radiologic Technology/Science, which has the corresponding CIP code of 51.0911 and prepares you to offer medical imaging services to patients, is not considered to be a STEM degree. Where do the deviations come in? Which areas of healthcare may be considered STEM disciplines to study? The fields of psychology, veterinary science, and pharmaceutical sciences all provide a variety of degrees that can be counted as STEM majors.
The field of Pharmaceutical Science can be challenging at times. The CIP Code 51.2010 for Pharmaceutical Sciences is considered to be a STEM field of study, but the CIP Code 51.2099 for Pharmacy is not. A degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences, on the other hand, does not qualify you to work in the area of pharmacy but rather prepares you for careers in the disciplines of drug testing and analysis, drug research and development, or pharmaceutical sales and marketing.
A degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences does not qualify you to take the licensing exam to become a pharmacist; however, a student who wants to become a pharmacist could initially get a bachelor’s degree in Pharmaceutical Science, which qualifies as STEM, and then get their Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.), which does not qualify as STEM.
- This would allow the student to take the licensing exam to become a pharmacist.
- Even if the graduate’s most recent degree was in an area that does not fall within the umbrella of STEM, the graduate would still be eligible for the three years of work authorization that is associated with STEM because their bachelor’s degree is in a STEM field.
Consequently, those who are interested in working in the healthcare industry but also desire the three additional years of work authorization that comes with a STEM degree will be required to get two degrees, one in a STEM subject and one in the healthcare specialty of their choosing.
Is a pharmacy student a medical student?
Table 1 shows the number of hours that pharmacy students and medical students are required to spend attending planned classes in pharmacology and pharmacotherapy.
The curriculum for medical school may be defined as being issue driven, with an early concentration on clinical skills. These clinical skills are gained through practical lessons beginning in the first year and during junior clerkships beginning in the third year and continuing after that.
The curriculum for pharmacy students is equally issue focused, and they spend part of their first year rotating across different pharmacies. On the other hand, in comparison to the medical curriculum, the pharmacy curriculum often places less of a focus on patient care and other clinical topics. The majority of instruction in both sets of programs is delivered in the form of small group discussions and tutorials, lectures, and practical lessons.
The latter two years of the medical curriculum also include rotations and clerkships as part of the educational experience. Because the amount of time spent on self-study varies so greatly from student to student, that time was not factored into the total number of hours required for tuition.
Only specified hours (such as seminars or lectures on a certain topic) were considered to be tuition time. This is due to the fact that both curricula are issue focused, and that instruction in pharmacology and pharmacotherapy is frequently combined. Because of this, the amount of time spent on basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical pharmacology or applied knowledge, and pharmacotherapy skills was probably underestimated.
This is because these subjects probably came up during other forms of instruction, such as tutorials and other small group discussions. Both the pharmacy and the medical curriculum place a strong focus on independent study, so we did not anticipate that there would be any significant variations between the amount of time medical and pharmacy students spend on this type of learning.
What is the difference between medical and pharmacy?
Pharmacy Courses Vs. Medical Courses (Medical vs. Pharmacy) – Since these two types of courses are quite comparable to one another, there is not a lot of difference between Pharmacy Courses Vs. Medical Courses or Pharmacy vs. Medical. However, there are some subtle distinctions between them, which are as follows: –
|Pharmacy Courses||Other Medical Courses|
|Pharmacy course disseminates better knowledge of pharmacology, the use, and effect of various drugs.||Other Medical courses are more focused on diagnosis and treatment methodologies than pharmacology.|
|Pharmacy Courses are shorter in Duration||Other medical courses are longer in duration, it also depends on the medical course.|
|All Pharmacy Courses involve the study of medicines and their medical use by Doctors and health practitioners, it doesn’t involve treating and diagnosing the patient. .||After pursuing other medical courses, the student usually becomes a health practitioner and treats the patients with the help of medicines and other treatment methods.|
|In a Pharmacy Course, an individual learns about accurate and safe processing of prescriptions, dispensing and compounding of medicines, Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence (laws regulating the profession of pharmacy), use of Pharmacy software, Purchasing, merchandising and inventory control, third-party billing, accurate record-keeping as required under Food & Drug Act, computer processing, dispensing & Compounding of medicines, Patient-provider relationships, verbal and written communication and interpersonal skills, etc.||In other medical courses, the student learns about various branches of Medical & Health Sciences, diagnosis and treatment technologies, and methodologies.|
|Despite being a medical course, Pharmacy courses are also Technical courses.||Other medical courses are solely based on medicines/drugs, research, diagnostics, and treatments.|
|Average Course Fee- Rs 3 Lacs to Rs 6.2 Lacs .||Course fee of other medical courses starts from Rs 8 Lacs and it can cost up to Rs 50 Lacs or more depending on the course|
|Average Salary after Pharmacy Course- Rs 3.5 L.P. A to Rs 7 L.P. A||Average Salary after other Medical Courses- Rs 4 L.P. A to Rs 12 L.P. A|
|Career Prospects after Pharmacy Courses- Pharmacist in health care organizations, Lab Researcher, Pharmaceutical Distributor, Drug Inspector, Quality Control, Medical Underwriter, Patient Counsellor, Self-Employed as a Pharmacist.||Career Prospects after other Medical Courses The self-employed clinic, Dentist, Cardiologist, Surgeon, Physician, Pathologist, Lecturer, Professor, Physiotherapist, Orthopaedician, Pediatrician, Gynaecologists, Nurse, Pulmonologists, etc.|